Comparison of high flow nasal cannula oxygen administration to traditional nasal cannula oxygen therapy in healthy dogs.J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2019 May; 29(3):246-255.JV
To determine the feasibility, degree of respiratory support, and safety of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in sedated and awake healthy dogs, when compared to traditional nasal cannula (TNC) oxygen administration.
Randomized experimental crossover study.
University research facility.
Eight healthy dogs.
Variable flow rates (L/kg/min) were assessed, TNC: 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 and HFNC: 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5. HFNC was assessed in sedated and awake dogs.
Variables measured included: inspiratory/expiratory airway pressures, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), end-tidal oxygen (ETO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), temperature, heart/respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and pulse oximetry. Sedation status, complications, and predefined tolerance and respiratory scores were recorded.
Using HFNC, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was achieved at 1 and 2 L/kg/min. CPAP was not higher at 2.5 than 2 L/kg/min, with worse tolerance scores. Expiratory airway pressures were increased when sedated (P = 0.006). FiO2 at 0.4 L/kg/min for both methods was 72%. FiO2 with TNC 0.1 L/kg/min was 27% and not different from room air. The FiO2 at all HFNC flow rates ≥1 L/kg/min was 95%. PaO2 for HFNC 0.4 L/kg/min was lower than at other flow rates (P = 0.005). The only noted complication was aerophagia. PaCO2 was increased with sedation and use of HFNC when compared to baseline (P = 0.006; P < 0.01).
Use of HFNC in dogs is feasible and safe, provides predictable oxygen support and provides CPAP, but may cause a mild increase in PaCO2 . Flow rates of 1-2 L/kg/min are recommended. If using TNC, flow rates above 0.1 L/kg/min may attain higher FiO2 .