Anabasis aretioides Coss. & Moq. phenolic compounds exhibit in vitro hypoglycemic, antioxidant and antipathogenic properties.J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Dec 20; 30(2):251-257.JB
Background Based on our previous ethnobotanical survey, the non-investigated Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides Coss. & Moq., growing in the region of Errachidia, was selected for pharmacological investigation. In Moroccan traditional medicine, A. aretioides is being used for diabetes treatment. Thus, the current work aims at evaluating the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of the plant in relation to the digestive tract. Methods The different parts of the plant (aerial parts, roots, seeds) were extracted with methanol (MeOH) and screened in enzymatic assays for their inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS. Results The MeOH extracts of A. aretioides aerial parts, roots, and seeds, respectively, inhibited α-amylase (IC50 of 3148.07 μg/mL, 2440.20 μg/mL, 3395.71 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 of 2940.59 μg/mL, 3521.81 μg/mL, 3393.83 μg/mL). Moreover, compared to aerial parts and seeds, the plant roots exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and a potent reducing power. In resazurin microplate assay, the plant parts displayed a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 7.81 mg/mL to 31.25 mg/mL. Chemical analysis revealed 25 phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic acid as the main phenolic compound in the aerial parts, hesperidin in roots, and quercitrin in seeds. Conclusion Anabasis aretioides cited for treatment of diabetes shows promising antioxidant and antibacterial properties, as well as an ability to inhibit digestive enzyme, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Thus, our results explain in part the traditional use of this Saharan medicine and open doors for further in vivo mechanistic and functional studies.