Lyme neuroborreliosis in children: Report of nine cases and a review of the literature.Arch Pediatr. 2019 Apr; 26(3):133-137.AP
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a bacterial infection caused by the dissemination and proliferation of a Borrelia species in the central nervous system. Neuroborreliosis occurs after transmission of the pathogen from an infected tick to a human host during a tick bite. We report nine cases of pediatric neuroborreliosis collected by the National Observatory of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis in France between 2001 and 2012. The nine children, aged 4-13 years, were identified in northern and eastern France and had the following clinical features: meningeal irritation alone or with facial palsy, or isolated facial palsy. All cases showed anti-Borrelia antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid or serum, or with a positive Borrelia PCR in the CSF. The outcome was favorable in all cases after a 2- to 3-week course of third-generation cephalosporin. On the basis of these nine pediatric cases, this study provides an update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic strategy, and treatment of neuroborreliosis, with insight into the specific features of pediatric neuroborreliosis and the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of this infection.