Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS): Natural history, prenatal management strategies, and outcomes at a single comprehensive fetal center.J Pediatr Surg 2019; 54(6):1153-1158JP
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a devastating fetal condition of complete airway discontinuity resulting in significant hydrops and extreme lung hyperplasia. It is universally fatal with survival reported only in the rare spontaneous fistulization or EXIT intervention (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment). Even in these cases, mortality remains high, and current investigations are targeting prenatal interventions. This report describes our experience with management and fetal interventions for CHAOS, including laser laryngotomy.
We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with CHAOS at a single academic institution between 2006 and 2017.
Fifteen patients were identified. Eight had obstruction at the trachea and seven at the larynx. In the laryngeal obstructions, three expired shortly after birth, and one survived after spontaneous fistulization and subsequent EXIT to tracheostomy. The remaining three underwent in-utero treatment with laser laryngotomy. One had preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), delivered 3 days post-operatively, and died. Two underwent EXIT to tracheostomy with one surviving to discharge and is currently 2 years old.
Our study demonstrates the outcomes of a large series of patients diagnosed with CHAOS. While mortality remains high, options for fetal intervention are being explored to allow alterations in the prenatal natural history and improve postnatal outcomes.
TYPE OF STUDY
Retrospective Treatment Study.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE