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Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor with Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse with Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 mV.
Nano Lett 2019; 19(4):2411-2417NL

Abstract

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials-such as transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-and their van der Waals layered preparations have been actively researched to build electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, junction diodes, tunneling devices, and, more recently, memristors. Two-dimensional material memristors built in lateral form, with horizontal placement of electrodes and the 2D material layers, have provided an intriguing window into the motions of ions along the atomically thin layers. On the other hand, 2D material memristors built in vertical form with top and bottom electrodes sandwiching 2D material layers may provide opportunities to explore the extreme of the memristive performance with the atomic-scale interelectrode distance. In particular, they may help push the switching voltages to a lower limit, which is an important pursuit in memristor research in general, given their roles in neuromorphic computing. In fact, recently Akinwande et al. performed a pioneering work to demonstrate a vertical memristor that sandwiches a single MoS2 monolayer between two inert Au electrodes, but it could neither attain switching voltages below 1 V nor control the switching polarity, obtaining both unipolar and bipolar switching devices. Here, we report a vertical memristor that sandwiches two MoS2 monolayers between an active Cu top electrode and an inert Au bottom electrode. Cu ions diffuse through the MoS2 double layers to form atomic-scale filaments. The atomic-scale thickness, combined with the electrochemical metallization, lowers switching voltages down to 0.1-0.2 V, on par with the state of the art. Furthermore, our memristor achieves consistent bipolar and analogue switching, and thus exhibits the synapse-like learning behavior such as the spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), the very first STDP demonstration among all 2D-material-based vertical memristors. The demonstrated STDP with low switching voltages is promising not only for low-power neuromorphic computing, but also from the point of view that the voltage range approaches the biological action potentials, opening up a possibility for direct interfacing with mammalian neuronal networks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Harvard University , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02138 , United States.School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Harvard University , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02138 , United States.Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology , Samsung Electronics , Suwon 443-803 , South Korea.School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Harvard University , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02138 , United States.Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology , Samsung Electronics , Suwon 443-803 , South Korea.Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology , Samsung Electronics , Suwon 443-803 , South Korea.Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology , Samsung Electronics , Suwon 443-803 , South Korea.Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology , Samsung Electronics , Suwon 443-803 , South Korea.School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Harvard University , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02138 , United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30896171

Citation

Xu, Renjing, et al. "Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor With Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse With Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 MV." Nano Letters, vol. 19, no. 4, 2019, pp. 2411-2417.
Xu R, Jang H, Lee MH, et al. Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor with Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse with Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 mV. Nano Lett. 2019;19(4):2411-2417.
Xu, R., Jang, H., Lee, M. H., Amanov, D., Cho, Y., Kim, H., ... Ham, D. (2019). Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor with Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse with Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 mV. Nano Letters, 19(4), pp. 2411-2417. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b05140.
Xu R, et al. Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor With Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse With Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 MV. Nano Lett. 2019 04 10;19(4):2411-2417. PubMed PMID: 30896171.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vertical MoS2 Double-Layer Memristor with Electrochemical Metallization as an Atomic-Scale Synapse with Switching Thresholds Approaching 100 mV. AU - Xu,Renjing, AU - Jang,Houk, AU - Lee,Min-Hyun, AU - Amanov,Dovran, AU - Cho,Yeonchoo, AU - Kim,Haeryong, AU - Park,Seongjun, AU - Shin,Hyeon-Jin, AU - Ham,Donhee, Y1 - 2019/03/27/ PY - 2019/3/22/pubmed PY - 2019/3/22/medline PY - 2019/3/22/entrez KW - Memristor KW - analogue neural network KW - neuromorphic computing KW - resistive memory KW - spike-timing dependent plasticity KW - transition metal dichalcogenide KW - two-dimensional materials SP - 2411 EP - 2417 JF - Nano letters JO - Nano Lett. VL - 19 IS - 4 N2 - Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials-such as transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-and their van der Waals layered preparations have been actively researched to build electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, junction diodes, tunneling devices, and, more recently, memristors. Two-dimensional material memristors built in lateral form, with horizontal placement of electrodes and the 2D material layers, have provided an intriguing window into the motions of ions along the atomically thin layers. On the other hand, 2D material memristors built in vertical form with top and bottom electrodes sandwiching 2D material layers may provide opportunities to explore the extreme of the memristive performance with the atomic-scale interelectrode distance. In particular, they may help push the switching voltages to a lower limit, which is an important pursuit in memristor research in general, given their roles in neuromorphic computing. In fact, recently Akinwande et al. performed a pioneering work to demonstrate a vertical memristor that sandwiches a single MoS2 monolayer between two inert Au electrodes, but it could neither attain switching voltages below 1 V nor control the switching polarity, obtaining both unipolar and bipolar switching devices. Here, we report a vertical memristor that sandwiches two MoS2 monolayers between an active Cu top electrode and an inert Au bottom electrode. Cu ions diffuse through the MoS2 double layers to form atomic-scale filaments. The atomic-scale thickness, combined with the electrochemical metallization, lowers switching voltages down to 0.1-0.2 V, on par with the state of the art. Furthermore, our memristor achieves consistent bipolar and analogue switching, and thus exhibits the synapse-like learning behavior such as the spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), the very first STDP demonstration among all 2D-material-based vertical memristors. The demonstrated STDP with low switching voltages is promising not only for low-power neuromorphic computing, but also from the point of view that the voltage range approaches the biological action potentials, opening up a possibility for direct interfacing with mammalian neuronal networks. SN - 1530-6992 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30896171/Vertical_MoS2_Double_Layer_Memristor_with_Electrochemical_Metallization_as_an_Atomic_Scale_Synapse_with_Switching_Thresholds_Approaching_100_mV_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b05140 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -