Hypertension in CKD: Core Curriculum 2019.Am J Kidney Dis. 2019 07; 74(1):120-131.AJ
Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely interlinked pathophysiologic states, such that sustained hypertension can lead to worsening kidney function and progressive decline in kidney function can conversely lead to worsening blood pressure (BP) control. The pathophysiology of hypertension in CKD is complex and is a sequela of multiple factors, including reduced nephron mass, increased sodium retention and extracellular volume expansion, sympathetic nervous system overactivity, activation of hormones including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and endothelial dysfunction. Currently, the treatment target for patients with CKD is a clinic systolic BP < 130mm Hg. The main approaches to the management of hypertension in CKD include dietary salt restriction, initiation of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and diuretic therapy. Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and accelerate progression to end-stage kidney disease. Although intensive BP control has not been shown in clinical trials to slow the progression of CKD, intensive BP control reduces the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the CKD population.