Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: review with a focus on practice in low- to middle-income countries.Paediatr Int Child Health 2019; 39(1):48-58PI
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be considered in any child with a persistently altered bowel habit. Growth failure may be a consequence and there may also be extra-intestinal manifestations. Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy and conventional histopathology are the diagnostic tools of choice in IBD. The identification and management of children with IBD in resource-poor settings is difficult and there are few data on its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. The main challenges are a lack of resources and infrastructure including trained personnel in settings where there are other priorities for maintaining the health and wellbeing of children. The identification and management of children with inflammatory bowel conditions often depends on the enthusiasm, skill and commitment of a few dedicated individuals. Abbreviations: ADA: Adalimumab; CD: Crohn disease; ECCO: European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation; EEN: exclusive enteral nutrition; ESPGHAN: European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition; FMT: faecal microbiota transplantation; GDP: gross domestic product; HIC: high-income countries; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; IBDU: inflammatory bowel disease unclassified; IC: ileocolonoscopy; IFX: infliximab; IPAA: ileal pouch anal anastomosis; LMIC: low- and middle-income countries; MH: mucosal healing; OGD: oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy; PCDAI: Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index; PIBD: paediatric inflammatory bowel disease; PUCAI: Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index; UC: ulcerative colitis; UGIT: upper gastrointestinal tract; VEO-IBD: very early-onset IBD; WLE: white light endoscopy; 5-ASA: 5 aminosalicylic acid; 6-MP: 6-mercaptopurine.