Mucormycosis in Burn Patients.J Fungi (Basel) 2019; 5(1)JF
Patients with extensive burns are an important group at risk for cutaneous mucormycosis. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases in burn patients from 1990 onward. A Medline search yielded identification of 7 case series, 3 outbreaks, and 25 individual cases reports. The prevalence reached 0.04%⁻0.6%. The median age was 42⁻48 in the case series and outbreaks, except for the studies from military centers (23.5⁻32.5) and in individual reports (29.5). The median total body surface area reached 42.5%⁻65%. Various skin lesions were described, none being pathognomonic: the diagnosis was mainly reached because of extensive necrotic lesions sometimes associated with sepsis. Most patients were treated with systemic amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B, and all underwent debridement and/or amputation. Mortality reached 33%⁻100% in the case series, 29%⁻62% during outbreaks, and 40% in individual cases. Most patients were diagnosed using histopathology and/or culture. Mucorales qPCR showed detection of circulating DNA 2⁻24 days before the standard diagnosis. Species included the main clinically relevant mucorales (i.e., Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia/Lichtheimia, Rhizomucor) but also more uncommon mucorales such as Saksenaea or Apophysomyces. Contact with soil was reported in most individual cases. Bandages were identified as the source of contamination in two nosocomial outbreaks.