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The ethics of genome editing in non-human animals: a systematic review of reasons reported in the academic literature.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 05 13; 374(1772):20180106.PT

Abstract

In recent years, new genome editing technologies have emerged that can edit the genome of non-human animals with progressively increasing efficiency. Despite ongoing academic debate about the ethical implications of these technologies, no comprehensive overview of this debate exists. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review of the reasons reported in the academic literature for and against the development and use of genome editing technologies in animals. Most included articles were written by academics from the biomedical or animal sciences. The reported reasons related to seven themes: human health, efficiency, risks and uncertainty, animal welfare, animal dignity, environmental considerations and public acceptability. Our findings illuminate several key considerations about the academic debate, including a low disciplinary diversity in the contributing academics, a scarcity of systematic comparisons of potential consequences of using these technologies, an underrepresentation of animal interests, and a disjunction between the public and academic debate on this topic. As such, this article can be considered a call for a broad range of academics to get increasingly involved in the discussion about genome editing, to incorporate animal interests and systematic comparisons, and to further discuss the aims and methods of public involvement. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The ecology and evolution of prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems'.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Department of Medical Humanities, Julius Center, University Medical Center Utrecht/Utrecht University , PO Box 85500, Utrecht, GA 3508 , The Netherlands.1 Department of Medical Humanities, Julius Center, University Medical Center Utrecht/Utrecht University , PO Box 85500, Utrecht, GA 3508 , The Netherlands.2 Research Department, The Hastings Center , 21 Malcolm Gordon Road, Garrison, NY 10524 , USA.3 The University of Exeter Business School, University of Exeter , Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4PU , UK.1 Department of Medical Humanities, Julius Center, University Medical Center Utrecht/Utrecht University , PO Box 85500, Utrecht, GA 3508 , The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30905297

Citation

de Graeff, Nienke, et al. "The Ethics of Genome Editing in Non-human Animals: a Systematic Review of Reasons Reported in the Academic Literature." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 374, no. 1772, 2019, p. 20180106.
de Graeff N, Jongsma KR, Johnston J, et al. The ethics of genome editing in non-human animals: a systematic review of reasons reported in the academic literature. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci. 2019;374(1772):20180106.
de Graeff, N., Jongsma, K. R., Johnston, J., Hartley, S., & Bredenoord, A. L. (2019). The ethics of genome editing in non-human animals: a systematic review of reasons reported in the academic literature. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 374(1772), 20180106. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0106
de Graeff N, et al. The Ethics of Genome Editing in Non-human Animals: a Systematic Review of Reasons Reported in the Academic Literature. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci. 2019 05 13;374(1772):20180106. PubMed PMID: 30905297.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The ethics of genome editing in non-human animals: a systematic review of reasons reported in the academic literature. AU - de Graeff,Nienke, AU - Jongsma,Karin R, AU - Johnston,Josephine, AU - Hartley,Sarah, AU - Bredenoord,Annelien L, PY - 2019/3/26/entrez PY - 2019/3/25/pubmed PY - 2020/3/19/medline KW - Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeat KW - environment KW - ethics KW - genome editing KW - human health SP - 20180106 EP - 20180106 JF - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences JO - Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. VL - 374 IS - 1772 N2 - In recent years, new genome editing technologies have emerged that can edit the genome of non-human animals with progressively increasing efficiency. Despite ongoing academic debate about the ethical implications of these technologies, no comprehensive overview of this debate exists. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review of the reasons reported in the academic literature for and against the development and use of genome editing technologies in animals. Most included articles were written by academics from the biomedical or animal sciences. The reported reasons related to seven themes: human health, efficiency, risks and uncertainty, animal welfare, animal dignity, environmental considerations and public acceptability. Our findings illuminate several key considerations about the academic debate, including a low disciplinary diversity in the contributing academics, a scarcity of systematic comparisons of potential consequences of using these technologies, an underrepresentation of animal interests, and a disjunction between the public and academic debate on this topic. As such, this article can be considered a call for a broad range of academics to get increasingly involved in the discussion about genome editing, to incorporate animal interests and systematic comparisons, and to further discuss the aims and methods of public involvement. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The ecology and evolution of prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems'. SN - 1471-2970 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30905297/The_ethics_of_genome_editing_in_non_human_animals:_a_systematic_review_of_reasons_reported_in_the_academic_literature_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.0106?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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