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Effects and mechanism of free amino acids on browning in the processing of black garlic.
J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Aug 15; 99(10):4670-4676.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Black garlic is produced by heating raw garlic at a high temperature for a long time without any additives. The thermal processing induces many chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which causes the color change from white to dark brown. Garlic contains a variety of amino acids, and the effect of each amino acid on browning is not fully understood. This work investigated the effect and mechanism of free amino acids on the browning of black garlic using model solutions containing garlic neutral polysaccharide, hydrolyzed garlic neutral polysaccharide, fructose, and free amino acids.

RESULTS

A significant increase in reducing sugar was detected when garlic neutral polysaccharide was heated with glycine. The browning intensity of garlic neutral polysaccharide-glycine model solution was obviously higher after heating at 80 °C compared with that of garlic neutral polysaccharide solution. The model solution containing histidine had the greatest browning degree. The histidine model has a stable pH value, and almost no 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) was detected.

CONCLUSION

Amino acid can promote the breaking of the garlic neutral polysaccharide chain and can react with the fructose generated to form browning. Histidine has the greatest effect on the browning, because histidine could eliminate the inhibiting effect of organic acid on Maillard reaction due to the buffer ability, and histidine had high reactivity in the late stage of Maillard reaction. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, Tai'an, Shandong, People's Repulic of China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30906992

Citation

Liu, Pengli, et al. "Effects and Mechanism of Free Amino Acids On Browning in the Processing of Black Garlic." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 99, no. 10, 2019, pp. 4670-4676.
Liu P, Lu X, Li N, et al. Effects and mechanism of free amino acids on browning in the processing of black garlic. J Sci Food Agric. 2019;99(10):4670-4676.
Liu, P., Lu, X., Li, N., Zheng, Z., Zhao, R., Tang, X., & Qiao, X. (2019). Effects and mechanism of free amino acids on browning in the processing of black garlic. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(10), 4670-4676. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9707
Liu P, et al. Effects and Mechanism of Free Amino Acids On Browning in the Processing of Black Garlic. J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Aug 15;99(10):4670-4676. PubMed PMID: 30906992.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects and mechanism of free amino acids on browning in the processing of black garlic. AU - Liu,Pengli, AU - Lu,Xiaoming, AU - Li,Ningyang, AU - Zheng,Zhenjia, AU - Zhao,Ruixuan, AU - Tang,Xiaozhen, AU - Qiao,Xuguang, Y1 - 2019/05/03/ PY - 2018/04/10/received PY - 2019/02/24/revised PY - 2019/03/20/accepted PY - 2019/3/25/pubmed PY - 2019/8/7/medline PY - 2019/3/26/entrez KW - Maillard reaction KW - amino acid KW - black garlic KW - browning SP - 4670 EP - 4676 JF - Journal of the science of food and agriculture JO - J Sci Food Agric VL - 99 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Black garlic is produced by heating raw garlic at a high temperature for a long time without any additives. The thermal processing induces many chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which causes the color change from white to dark brown. Garlic contains a variety of amino acids, and the effect of each amino acid on browning is not fully understood. This work investigated the effect and mechanism of free amino acids on the browning of black garlic using model solutions containing garlic neutral polysaccharide, hydrolyzed garlic neutral polysaccharide, fructose, and free amino acids. RESULTS: A significant increase in reducing sugar was detected when garlic neutral polysaccharide was heated with glycine. The browning intensity of garlic neutral polysaccharide-glycine model solution was obviously higher after heating at 80 °C compared with that of garlic neutral polysaccharide solution. The model solution containing histidine had the greatest browning degree. The histidine model has a stable pH value, and almost no 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) was detected. CONCLUSION: Amino acid can promote the breaking of the garlic neutral polysaccharide chain and can react with the fructose generated to form browning. Histidine has the greatest effect on the browning, because histidine could eliminate the inhibiting effect of organic acid on Maillard reaction due to the buffer ability, and histidine had high reactivity in the late stage of Maillard reaction. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry. SN - 1097-0010 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30906992/Effects_and_mechanism_of_free_amino_acids_on_browning_in_the_processing_of_black_garlic_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9707 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -