Phosphate supplementation for hypophosphatemia during continuous renal replacement therapy in adults.Ren Fail. 2019 Nov; 41(1):72-79.RF
Hypophosphatemia is common during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients and can cause generalized muscle weakness, prolonged respiratory failure, and myocardial dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of adding phosphate to the dialysate and replacement solutions to treat hypophosphatemia occurring in intensive CRRT in critically ill patients.
We retrospectively analyzed 73 patients treated with intensive CRRT (effluent flow ≥35 ml/kg/hr) in the intensive care unit. The control group (group 1, n = 22) received no phosphate supplementation. The treatment groups received dialysate and replacement solution phosphate supplementation at 2.0 mmol/L (group 2, n = 26) or 3.0 mmol/L (group 3, n = 25).
The CRRT-induced hypophosphatemia incidence was 59.0%. Correction of hypophosphatemia with phosphate supplementation changed the mean serum phosphorus levels to 1.24 ± 0.37 and 1.44 ± 0.31 mmol/L in groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = .02). The time required for correction was 1.65 ± 0.80 and 1.39 ± 1.43 days for groups 2 and 3, respectively and was significantly longer in group 2 (p = .02). After supplementation, hypophosphatemia, and hyperphosphatemia both occurred in 7% of group 2. Group 3 developed no hypophosphatemia, but 20% developed hyperphosphatemia. The serum phosphate levels in hyperphosphatemia cases returned to normal within 2.0 days (group 2) and 1.0 day (group 3) after stopping phosphate supplementation.
Phosphate supplementation effectively corrected CRRT-induced hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients with an acute kidney injury. The use of 2 mmol/L phosphate is appropriate in patients with CRRT-induced hypophosphatemia, but a different concentration could be required to prevent hypophosphatemia at the start of CRRT.