High iodine intake and central lymph node metastasis risk of papillary thyroid cancer.J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019 May; 53:16-21.JT
The relationship between iodine intake and clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unclear. We aim to investigate the relationship between iodine intake and central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) of PTC. A total of 4040 consecutive patients with PTC receiving thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection were enrolled from 2013 to 2018. Pathological features of tumors and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between iodine intake and CLNM of PTC. More than adequate (UIC: 200.0-299.9 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 300.0 μg/L) were present in 1741 cases (43.09%). Iodine deficiency (UIC ≤ 99.9 μg/L) was inversely associated with female PTC risk only with OR (95% CI): 0.48 (0.29-0.80) relative to adequate iodine intake (UIC: 100.0-199.9 μg/L). However, more than adequate and excessive iodine intake was not associated with PTC risk among the general population and patients with thyroid nodules. In addition, high iodine intake was not associated CLNM risk of PTC. After defining CLNM as metastatic lymph nodes ≥ 2, excessive iodine intake was marginally associated with CLNM among female PTC patients with OR (95% CI): 1.25 (0.99-1.57) by multivariate analysis. Additionally, excessive iodine intake was marginally associated with larger tumor size and capsular invasion. Furthermore, we found that female PTC patients were more closely linked with iodine intake than male ones. In conclusion, high iodine intake appears not to be an initiator, but may be a weak promoter for female PTC progression, which needs further validation.