Safety and tolerability of available urate-lowering drugs: a critical review.Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019; 18(4):261-271EO
Urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is the cornerstone of gout management, which is a widespread chronic illness characterized by hyperuricemia, arthropathy, tophus development, and urolithiasis. Since asymptomatic increased serum urate levels are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders, a larger use of ULTs in the general population is expected in the near future.
This review will focus on the safety and tolerability profile of the available urate-lowering drugs: xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs), uricosuric agents and injectable uricases.
Older drugs for ULT like allopurinol are well studied and extensively described from typical adverse effects (mild skin rash) to unusual fatal reactions, while febuxostat seems to be overall well tolerated. More evidence is required to define the safety profile of topiroxostat, arhalofenate, tranilast, and sulfinpyrazone. Furthermore, there are some unanswered questions about the pharmacological interactions of probenecid and the hepatotoxicity of benzbromarone. Despite a limited use in clinical practice, combination therapy with lesinurad or verinurad and XOI is not frequently accompanied by side effects. Rasburicase and pegloticase are usually well tolerated with some specific exceptions. Before prescribing UL drugs, physicians should take into account their safety profile tailoring the treatment on the patient characteristics.