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Microfluidic analysis of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a hydrophobic medium.
Analyst. 2019 May 07; 144(9):3080-3087.A

Abstract

Opioid overdose deaths resulting from heroin contaminated with the potent opioid agonist fentanyl, are currently a serious public health issue. A rapid and reliable method for identifying fentanyl-laced heroin could lead to reduced opioid overdose. Herein, we describe a strategy for detecting fentanyl at low concentrations in the presence of heroin, based on the significant hydrophobicity of fentanyl compared to heroin hydrochloride, by preferentially extracting trace concentrations of fentanyl using ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction using octanol as the extracting phase. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is enabled by exposing the analyte to silver nanoparticle-coated SiO2 nanoparticles, designed to be stable in mixtures of octanol and ethanol. The sample is then loaded into an SU8/glass microfluidic device that is compatible with non-aqueous solutions. The SERS-active nanoparticles are aggregated by dielectrophoresis using microelectrodes embedded in the microfluidic channels, and the nanoparticle aggregates are interrogated using Raman spectroscopy. Using this method, we were able to reliably detect fentanyl from samples with as low as 1 : 10 000 (mol/mol) fentanyl-to-heroin ratio, improving the limits of detection of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by two orders of magnitude over current techniques. The described system could also be useful in chemical detection where rapid and robust preconcentration of trace hydrophobic analytes, and rapid SERS detection in non-aqueous solvents is indicated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. meinhart@ucsb.edu.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. meinhart@ucsb.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30919846

Citation

Salemmilani, Reza, et al. "Microfluidic Analysis of Fentanyl-laced Heroin Samples By Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in a Hydrophobic Medium." The Analyst, vol. 144, no. 9, 2019, pp. 3080-3087.
Salemmilani R, Moskovits M, Meinhart CD. Microfluidic analysis of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a hydrophobic medium. Analyst. 2019;144(9):3080-3087.
Salemmilani, R., Moskovits, M., & Meinhart, C. D. (2019). Microfluidic analysis of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a hydrophobic medium. The Analyst, 144(9), 3080-3087. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9an00168a
Salemmilani R, Moskovits M, Meinhart CD. Microfluidic Analysis of Fentanyl-laced Heroin Samples By Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in a Hydrophobic Medium. Analyst. 2019 May 7;144(9):3080-3087. PubMed PMID: 30919846.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Microfluidic analysis of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a hydrophobic medium. AU - Salemmilani,Reza, AU - Moskovits,Martin, AU - Meinhart,Carl D, Y1 - 2019/03/28/ PY - 2019/3/29/pubmed PY - 2019/7/6/medline PY - 2019/3/29/entrez SP - 3080 EP - 3087 JF - The Analyst JO - Analyst VL - 144 IS - 9 N2 - Opioid overdose deaths resulting from heroin contaminated with the potent opioid agonist fentanyl, are currently a serious public health issue. A rapid and reliable method for identifying fentanyl-laced heroin could lead to reduced opioid overdose. Herein, we describe a strategy for detecting fentanyl at low concentrations in the presence of heroin, based on the significant hydrophobicity of fentanyl compared to heroin hydrochloride, by preferentially extracting trace concentrations of fentanyl using ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction using octanol as the extracting phase. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is enabled by exposing the analyte to silver nanoparticle-coated SiO2 nanoparticles, designed to be stable in mixtures of octanol and ethanol. The sample is then loaded into an SU8/glass microfluidic device that is compatible with non-aqueous solutions. The SERS-active nanoparticles are aggregated by dielectrophoresis using microelectrodes embedded in the microfluidic channels, and the nanoparticle aggregates are interrogated using Raman spectroscopy. Using this method, we were able to reliably detect fentanyl from samples with as low as 1 : 10 000 (mol/mol) fentanyl-to-heroin ratio, improving the limits of detection of fentanyl-laced heroin samples by two orders of magnitude over current techniques. The described system could also be useful in chemical detection where rapid and robust preconcentration of trace hydrophobic analytes, and rapid SERS detection in non-aqueous solvents is indicated. SN - 1364-5528 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30919846/Microfluidic_analysis_of_fentanyl_laced_heroin_samples_by_surface_enhanced_Raman_spectroscopy_in_a_hydrophobic_medium_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/c9an00168a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -