The final demise of Rodriguez lethal acrofacial dysostosis: A case report and review of the literature.Am J Med Genet A. 2019 06; 179(6):1063-1068.AJ
We evaluated a newborn with acrofacial dysostosis in whom a clinical diagnosis of Nager syndrome was entertained. Radiographs revealed hypoplasia of the scapulae and bilateral humeroradial synostosis, with absent ulna on the left and hypoplastic ulna on the right. The finding of bilateral humeroradial synostosis had not been seen in cases of Nager syndrome before and we considered other diagnoses. Humeroradial synostosis has been found in three cases of acrofacial dysostosis Rodriguez type, a syndrome characterized by mandibular hypoplasia, upper and lower extremity phocomelia, and oligodactyly of the upper limbs. More recently, haploinsufficiency of the SF3B4 gene has been identified as the cause of both Nager and Rodriguez syndrome, leading many to believe that Rodriguez syndrome represents a more severe end of a Nager syndrome spectrum. An SF3B4 mutation was found in our patient, prompting a review of the previous known cases of Rodriguez syndrome, which revealed no clustering of SF3B4 mutations, and four cases of Rodriguez syndrome with mutations identical to those in cases of Nager syndrome. Rodriguez syndrome was previously thought of as a lethal acrofacial dysostosis distinct from Nager syndrome. A number of more mild cases, as well as our case, intermediate between the two phenotypes, illustrate that Rodriguez syndrome is a severe manifestation of Nager syndrome, and is not lethal with aggressive medical care.