Unraveling corticobasal syndrome and alien limb syndrome with structural brain imaging.Cortex 2019; 117:33-40C
Alien limb phenomenon is a rare syndrome associated with a feeling of non-belonging and disowning toward one's limb. In contrast, anarchic limb phenomenon leads to involuntary but goal-directed movements. Alien/anarchic limb phenomena are frequent in corticobasal syndrome (CBS), an atypical parkinsonian syndrome characterized by rigidity, akinesia, dystonia, cortical sensory deficit, and apraxia. The structure-function relationship of alien/anarchic limb was investigated in multi-centric structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Whole-group and single-subject comparisons were made in 25 CBS and eight CBS-alien/anarchic limb patients versus controls. Support vector machine was used to see if CBS with and without alien/anarchic limb could be distinguished by structural MRI patterns. Whole-group comparison of CBS versus controls revealed asymmetric frontotemporal atrophy. CBS with alien/anarchic limb syndrome versus controls showed frontoparietal atrophy including the supplementary motor area contralateral to the side of the affected limb. Exploratory analysis identified frontotemporal regions encompassing the pre-/and postcentral gyrus as compromised in CBS with alien limb syndrome. Classification of CBS patients yielded accuracies of 79%. CBS-alien/anarchic limb syndrome was differentiated from CBS patients with an accuracy of 81%. Predictive differences were found in the cingulate gyrus spreading to frontomedian cortex, postcentral gyrus, and temporoparietoocipital regions. We present the first MRI-based group analysis on CBS-alien/anarchic limb. Results pave the way for individual clinical syndrome prediction and allow understanding the underlying neurocognitive architecture.