Perioperative analgesia for patients undergoing otologic surgery: An evidence-based review.Laryngoscope 2019L
Opioid misuse and diversion is a major concern, with a negative impact on both the individual and society. The objective of this study was to perform an evidence-based systematic review of the efficacy of perioperative analgesic regimens following otologic surgery.
Embase, Cochrane Library, and PubMed/MEDLINE databases (January 1, 1947 to June 30, 2018) were searched for studies investigating pain management in otologic surgeries. All studies were assessed for quality and bias using the Cochrane bias tool. Patient demographics, type of surgery, medication class, dose, administration characteristics, pain scores, and adverse events were reported.
Twenty-three studies encompassing 1,842 patients met inclusion criteria. In 21.4% of studies, an overall reduction in pain scores was reported when the treatment group included more than one analgesic. Nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events across all medication types (10.2%), with local anesthetic patients experiencing these side effects most frequently (38.0%). Perioperative acetaminophen was reported to have the fewest adverse drug reactions overall (6.1%), but did not reduce pain scores as much as other modalities, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or combination analgesics.
There is evidence that combination analgesics, such as acetaminophen plus codeine, provide superior pain relief to monotherapy analgesics in the perioperative pain management of otologic surgeries. NSAIDs, α-agonists, and nerve blocks may also be viable single-therapy options. Further prospective randomized controlled trials into perioperative analgesia for patients undergoing otologic surgery may be helpful in establishing a definitive consensus. Laryngoscope, 2019.