The effect of feeding fish oils, vegetable oils and clofibrate on the ketogenesis from long chain fatty acids in hepatocytes.Lipids 1986; 21(8):508-14L
Groups of rats were fed diets containing 25% fish oil (FO), 25% soybean oil, 25% partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO), 25% partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO), 25% partially hydrogenated coconut oil or 0.3% clofibrate for 3 wk. After the animals were fasted for 24 hr, hepatocytes were isolated and ketogenesis from added palmitate, linoleate cis and trans, arachidonate and docosahexaenoate was measured. Ketogenesis after oil feeding was significantly stimulated (two- to threefold) only in cells from the PHFO- and PHSO-fed rats. The stimulation was most apparent with the long chain unsaturated fatty acids as substrates. These fatty acids were relatively poor ketone body precursors in control hepatocytes. Essential fatty acid deficiency did not seem to be the reason for this stimulation. Clofibrate also stimulated ketogenesis significantly (1.5- to 3-fold). The degree of stimulation increased with chain length and degree of unsaturation of the substrate. The activity of the enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase was also studied in the same groups. Its activity was stimulated about fourfold in the clofibrate-treated rats and to a lesser extent by the PHFO, PHSO and FO diets. The activity showed no correlation with the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet or their oxidation in isolated hepatocytes. The 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, therefore, does not seem to be a regulatory enzyme in the metabolism of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that an induction of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system most likely is involved in the reported increases in ketogenesis from very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.