Effect of weight loss on the estimated glomerular filtration rates of obese patients at risk of chronic kidney disease: the RIGOR-TMU study.J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Aug; 10(4):756-766.JC
Weight-reduction therapies, including bariatric surgery (BS), are standard treatments for severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes; however, the outcomes of these therapies are inconclusive for obese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate the effects of BS or non-surgical interventions on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine whether BS can be recommended for renal function preservation based on body mass index (BMI) and eGFR changes in obese patients with CKD.
This study used data from the weight Reduction Intervention on GFR in Obese Patients with Renal Impairment-Taipei Medical University (TMU) study, which was a large, long-term, propensity score-matched cohort study based on clinical data from patients who registered at weight-reduction centres at TMU and its affiliated hospitals from 2008 to 2016. The patients were stratified according to whether they had undergone BS and into the mild, moderate, and high CKD risk groups using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. The primary outcome was the eGFR calculated using the Taiwan Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Cox regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for eGFR decreases ≥25%.
A total of 4332 obese patients were enrolled in this study. After propensity score matching, 1620 patients, including 60.2% women, with a mean age of 36.5 (9.9) years were divided into BS or non-surgery groups (n = 810 per group). The overall mean eGFRs increased by 4.4 (14) mL/min·1.73 m2 and decreased by 6.4 (16.0) mL/min·1.73 m2 in the BS and non-surgery groups, respectively. The decrease in BMI in the BS and non-surgery groups were 2.5 and 1.3 kg/m2 , respectively. In the moderate/high CKD risk BS group, a significant correlation was evident between an increased eGFR and a reduced BMI (Spearman's correlation -0.229, P < 0.001). The Cox regression analysis showed that the BS group had a significantly lower risk of an eGFR decline ≥25% at 12 months [adjusted HR (aHR) 0.47, P = 0.03). After BS, obese patients with hypertension or albuminuria had significantly lower risks of eGFR declines ≥25% (aHR 0.37, P = 0.02 and aHR 0.13, P = 0.0018, respectively).
Bariatric surgery was associated with eGFR preservation in all obese patients and, particularly, in those with moderate-to-high CKD risks. A longer term outcome study is warranted to determine the benefits of BS for CKD patients.