Efficient decolourization of malachite green with biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles loaded carbonated hydroxyapatite as a reusable heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst.J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2019; 54(8):786-800.JE
In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs) with a mean diameter of 102.85 nm were firstly synthesized via a facile green route using Ulva spp. aqueous extract as a bioreductant agent. Then, IO-NPs were loaded into carbonated hydroxyapatite (c-Hap) and the final product was named as the iron oxide nanoparticles loaded carbonated hydroxyapatite (IO-NPs-Lc-Hap). Subsequently, IO-NPs-Lc-Hap was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis methods. MG colour removal efficiencies of Ulva spp., Hap, IO-NPs and IO-NPs-Lc-Hap materials were also evaluated by adsorption and/or Fenton-like reaction methods. IO-NPs-Lc-Hap with the highest decolourization capacity was chosen as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for Malachite Green (MG). For Fenton-like decolourization of MG, the optimum H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration and catalyst concentration were determined to be 30 mM, 100 mg/L and 1.0 g/L, respectively. At these optimum conditions, 100% decolourization efficiency and 33.3% COD removal were obtained. On the other hand, 94% decolourization efficiency and 42% COD removal were achieved for the real textile wastewater at the obtained optimum conditions. The experimental decolourization reaction rate for MG was determined as -rd = 0.0779 [(mg dye0.3) (g cat-0.3) (min-1)] × qt0.7. Also, the catalyst had high decolourization efficiencies at the end of six sequence usages.