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A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort.
Environ Health. 2019 04 02; 18(1):28.EH

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Prenatal exposure to some phenols and parabens has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Hormones may play an intermediate role between phenols and adverse outcomes. We examined the associations of phenol and paraben exposures with maternal reproductive and thyroid hormones in 602 pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Urinary triclocarban, phenol and paraben biomarkers, and serum hormones (estriol, progesterone, testosterone, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) were measured at two visits during pregnancy.

METHODS

Linear mixed models with a random intercept were constructed to examine the associations between hormones and urinary biomarkers. Results were additionally stratified by study visit. Results were transformed to hormone percent changes for an inter-quartile-range difference in exposure biomarker concentrations (%Δ).

RESULTS

Bisphenol-S was associated with a decrease in CRH [(%Δ -11.35; 95% CI: -18.71, - 3.33), and bisphenol-F was associated with an increase in FT4 (%Δ: 2.76; 95% CI: 0.29, 5.22). Butyl-, methyl- and propylparaben were associated with decreases in SHBG [(%Δ: -5.27; 95% CI: -9.4, - 1.14); (%Δ: -3.53; 95% CI: -7.37, 0.31); (%Δ: -3.74; 95% CI: -7.76, 0.27)]. Triclocarban was positively associated with T3 (%Δ: 4.08; 95% CI: 1.18, 6.98) and T3/T4 ratio (%Δ: 4.67; 95% CI: -1.37, 6.65), and suggestively negatively associated with TSH (%Δ: -10.12; 95% CI: -19.47, 0.32). There was evidence of susceptible windows of vulnerability for some associations. At 24-28 weeks gestation, there was a positive association between 2,4-dichlorophenol and CRH (%Δ: 9.66; 95% CI: 0.67, 19.45) and between triclosan and estriol (%Δ: 13.17; 95% CI: 2.34, 25.2); and a negative association between triclocarban and SHBG (%Δ: -9.71; 95% CI:-19.1, - 0.27) and between bisphenol A and testosterone (%Δ: -17.37; 95% CI: -26.7, - 6.87).

CONCLUSION

Phenols and parabens are associated with hormone levels during pregnancy. Further studies are required to substantiate these findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Room 1835 SPH I, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Room 1835 SPH I, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA. Epidemiology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, USA.Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA.Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Room 1835 SPH I, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA. meekerj@umich.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30940137

Citation

Aker, Amira M., et al. "A Repeated Measures Study of Phenol, Paraben and Triclocarban Urinary Biomarkers and Circulating Maternal Hormones During Gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT Cohort." Environmental Health : a Global Access Science Source, vol. 18, no. 1, 2019, p. 28.
Aker AM, Ferguson KK, Rosario ZY, et al. A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort. Environ Health. 2019;18(1):28.
Aker, A. M., Ferguson, K. K., Rosario, Z. Y., Mukherjee, B., Alshawabkeh, A. N., Calafat, A. M., Cordero, J. F., & Meeker, J. D. (2019). A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort. Environmental Health : a Global Access Science Source, 18(1), 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0459-5
Aker AM, et al. A Repeated Measures Study of Phenol, Paraben and Triclocarban Urinary Biomarkers and Circulating Maternal Hormones During Gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT Cohort. Environ Health. 2019 04 2;18(1):28. PubMed PMID: 30940137.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort. AU - Aker,Amira M, AU - Ferguson,Kelly K, AU - Rosario,Zaira Y, AU - Mukherjee,Bhramar, AU - Alshawabkeh,Akram N, AU - Calafat,Antonia M, AU - Cordero,José F, AU - Meeker,John D, Y1 - 2019/04/02/ PY - 2018/06/28/received PY - 2019/02/28/accepted PY - 2019/4/4/entrez PY - 2019/4/4/pubmed PY - 2019/5/9/medline KW - Endocrine disruption KW - In-utero KW - Parabens KW - Phenols KW - Pregnancy KW - Reproductive hormones KW - Thyroid hormones KW - Triclocarban SP - 28 EP - 28 JF - Environmental health : a global access science source JO - Environ Health VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to some phenols and parabens has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Hormones may play an intermediate role between phenols and adverse outcomes. We examined the associations of phenol and paraben exposures with maternal reproductive and thyroid hormones in 602 pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Urinary triclocarban, phenol and paraben biomarkers, and serum hormones (estriol, progesterone, testosterone, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) were measured at two visits during pregnancy. METHODS: Linear mixed models with a random intercept were constructed to examine the associations between hormones and urinary biomarkers. Results were additionally stratified by study visit. Results were transformed to hormone percent changes for an inter-quartile-range difference in exposure biomarker concentrations (%Δ). RESULTS: Bisphenol-S was associated with a decrease in CRH [(%Δ -11.35; 95% CI: -18.71, - 3.33), and bisphenol-F was associated with an increase in FT4 (%Δ: 2.76; 95% CI: 0.29, 5.22). Butyl-, methyl- and propylparaben were associated with decreases in SHBG [(%Δ: -5.27; 95% CI: -9.4, - 1.14); (%Δ: -3.53; 95% CI: -7.37, 0.31); (%Δ: -3.74; 95% CI: -7.76, 0.27)]. Triclocarban was positively associated with T3 (%Δ: 4.08; 95% CI: 1.18, 6.98) and T3/T4 ratio (%Δ: 4.67; 95% CI: -1.37, 6.65), and suggestively negatively associated with TSH (%Δ: -10.12; 95% CI: -19.47, 0.32). There was evidence of susceptible windows of vulnerability for some associations. At 24-28 weeks gestation, there was a positive association between 2,4-dichlorophenol and CRH (%Δ: 9.66; 95% CI: 0.67, 19.45) and between triclosan and estriol (%Δ: 13.17; 95% CI: 2.34, 25.2); and a negative association between triclocarban and SHBG (%Δ: -9.71; 95% CI:-19.1, - 0.27) and between bisphenol A and testosterone (%Δ: -17.37; 95% CI: -26.7, - 6.87). CONCLUSION: Phenols and parabens are associated with hormone levels during pregnancy. Further studies are required to substantiate these findings. SN - 1476-069X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30940137/A_repeated_measures_study_of_phenol_paraben_and_Triclocarban_urinary_biomarkers_and_circulating_maternal_hormones_during_gestation_in_the_Puerto_Rico_PROTECT_cohort_ L2 - https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-019-0459-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -