Impact of legislation on youth indoor tanning behaviour: A systematic review.Prev Med. 2019 06; 123:299-307.PM
Jurisdictions around the world have implemented indoor tanning legislations, which aim to protect all individuals, especially youth, from dangers of artificial ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to synthesize the available peer-reviewed literature to determine whether indoor tanning legislation has impacted the prevalence of youth indoor tanning. Following PRISMA guidelines, six databases were searched in 2016. Reference lists from relevant articles were also searched. An updated literature search was conducted in 2018. Each article was critically appraised using a merged checklist created from two previously validated checklists. All articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retained after appraisal. Seven studies, all conducted in the U.S., met the inclusion criteria. All studies used an observational, cross-sectional design. There were small absolute decreases in youth indoor tanning prevalence after legislation vs before (n = 3, mean = 3% decrease, range = 1%-6% decrease). Prevalence of youth indoor tanning was significantly lower in states with indoor tanning legislation vs states without legislation (n = 4, mean = 5% lower, range = 1%-18% lower). Prevalence of youth indoor tanning was lower in states with longer standing indoor tanning legislation vs states with more recently implemented legislation (n = 2, mean = 9% lower, range = 2%-20% lower). Indoor tanning legislation is generally associated with lower indoor tanning prevalence among youth. The small percent differences equate to millions of youth at the population level. Longer time lapses from legislation implementation to evaluation, coupled with greater enforcement, compliance, legislative stringency, and public education may result in even more pronounced declines in youth indoor tanning prevalence.