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Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 May; 26(15):15559-15572.ES

Abstract

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used as anticancer drug, reported to exert cytotoxic effects attributed to oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the protective effect of ethanolic extract of garlic (EEG) against cyclophosphamide (Cyp)-induced hematological disturbance and immunosuppressive and hepatotoxic effects. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into four equal groups: the normal control one, the Cyp-treated group (50 mg/kg BW/IM, once weekly), the EEG-treated group (300 mg/kg BW, orally, daily), and the Cyp & EEG group. All rats received their relevant treatments for four consecutive weeks. This study revealed that Cyp significantly decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. However, the counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and toxic neutrophils were elevated. Additionally, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of liver and renal biomarkers were significantly elevated in the Cyp-treated group. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly lower than the control rats. Furthermore, Cyp significantly reduced whole blood respiratory burst activity (NBT), serum lysozyme and bactericidal activities, interlukin-12 (IL-12), and interferon-γ. In contrast, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) were elevated. Additionally, Cyp induced hepatic and renal histopathological alterations. Data in the present study demonstrated that EEG has immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects and has the ability to diminish the alterations induced by Cyp.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt. fatmamostafa980@yahoo.com.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30945076

Citation

El-Sebaey, Ahmed M., et al. "Protective Effects of Garlic Extract Against Hematological Alterations, Immunosuppression, Hepatic Oxidative Stress, and Renal Damage Induced By Cyclophosphamide in Rats." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 26, no. 15, 2019, pp. 15559-15572.
El-Sebaey AM, Abdelhamid FM, Abdalla OA. Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(15):15559-15572.
El-Sebaey, A. M., Abdelhamid, F. M., & Abdalla, O. A. (2019). Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 26(15), 15559-15572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04993-7
El-Sebaey AM, Abdelhamid FM, Abdalla OA. Protective Effects of Garlic Extract Against Hematological Alterations, Immunosuppression, Hepatic Oxidative Stress, and Renal Damage Induced By Cyclophosphamide in Rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(15):15559-15572. PubMed PMID: 30945076.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. AU - El-Sebaey,Ahmed M, AU - Abdelhamid,Fatma M, AU - Abdalla,Osama A, Y1 - 2019/04/03/ PY - 2018/08/16/received PY - 2019/03/25/accepted PY - 2019/4/5/pubmed PY - 2019/7/3/medline PY - 2019/4/5/entrez KW - Cyclophosphamide KW - Ethanolic extract of garlic KW - Hematological alterations KW - Hepatic oxidative stress KW - Immunosuppression KW - Renal damage SP - 15559 EP - 15572 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 26 IS - 15 N2 - Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used as anticancer drug, reported to exert cytotoxic effects attributed to oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the protective effect of ethanolic extract of garlic (EEG) against cyclophosphamide (Cyp)-induced hematological disturbance and immunosuppressive and hepatotoxic effects. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into four equal groups: the normal control one, the Cyp-treated group (50 mg/kg BW/IM, once weekly), the EEG-treated group (300 mg/kg BW, orally, daily), and the Cyp & EEG group. All rats received their relevant treatments for four consecutive weeks. This study revealed that Cyp significantly decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. However, the counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and toxic neutrophils were elevated. Additionally, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of liver and renal biomarkers were significantly elevated in the Cyp-treated group. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly lower than the control rats. Furthermore, Cyp significantly reduced whole blood respiratory burst activity (NBT), serum lysozyme and bactericidal activities, interlukin-12 (IL-12), and interferon-γ. In contrast, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) were elevated. Additionally, Cyp induced hepatic and renal histopathological alterations. Data in the present study demonstrated that EEG has immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects and has the ability to diminish the alterations induced by Cyp. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30945076/Protective_effects_of_garlic_extract_against_hematological_alterations_immunosuppression_hepatic_oxidative_stress_and_renal_damage_induced_by_cyclophosphamide_in_rats_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04993-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -