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The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014).
J Athl Train. 2019 Feb; 54(2):212-225.JA

Abstract

CONTEXT

The advent of Web-based sports injury surveillance via programs such as the High School Reporting Information Online system and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program has aided the acquisition of girls' and women's softball injury data.

OBJECTIVE

To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained in high school girls' softball in the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years and collegiate women's softball in the 2004-2005 through 2013-2014 academic years using Web-based sports injury surveillance.

DESIGN

Descriptive epidemiology study.

SETTING

Online injury surveillance from softball teams in high school girls (annual average = 100) and collegiate women (annual average = 41).

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS

Girls' or women's softball players who participated in practices and competitions during the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years in high school and the 2004-2005 through 2013-2014 academic years in college.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)

Athletic trainers collected time-loss injury and exposure data. Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) were calculated. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared injury rates by competition level, school size or division, event type, and time in season.

RESULTS

The High School Reporting Information Online system documented 1357 time-loss injuries during 1 173 722 AEs; the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program documented 1848 time-loss injuries during 579 553 AEs. The injury rate was higher in college than in high school (3.19 versus 1.16/1000 AEs; IRR = 2.76; 95% CI = 2.57, 2.96). The competition injury rate was higher than the practice injury rate in high school (IRR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.82, 2.25) and in college (IRR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.52). Softball players at both levels sustained a variety of injuries, with the most common being ankle sprains and concussions. Many injuries also occurred while fielding or running bases.

CONCLUSIONS

Injury rates were greater in collegiate versus high school softball and in competitions versus practices. These findings highlight the need for injury-prevention interventions, including strength-training and prevention programs to reduce ankle sprains and provide protection for batters from pitches and fielders from batted balls.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention, Indianapolis, IN.Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Athletic Training Program, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Arizona School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa.Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz, Aurora.Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz, Aurora.Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, CA.Lebanon Valley College, Annville, PA.Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz, Aurora. Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30951383

Citation

Wasserman, Erin B., et al. "The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014)." Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 54, no. 2, 2019, pp. 212-225.
Wasserman EB, Register-Mihalik JK, Sauers EL, et al. The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014). J Athl Train. 2019;54(2):212-225.
Wasserman, E. B., Register-Mihalik, J. K., Sauers, E. L., Currie, D. W., Pierpoint, L. A., Knowles, S. B., Dompier, T. P., Comstock, R. D., Marshall, S. W., & Kerr, Z. Y. (2019). The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014). Journal of Athletic Training, 54(2), 212-225. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-206-17
Wasserman EB, et al. The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014). J Athl Train. 2019;54(2):212-225. PubMed PMID: 30951383.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Girls' Softball (2005-2006 Through 2013-2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Softball (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014). AU - Wasserman,Erin B, AU - Register-Mihalik,Johna K, AU - Sauers,Eric L, AU - Currie,Dustin W, AU - Pierpoint,Lauren A, AU - Knowles,Sarah B, AU - Dompier,Thomas P, AU - Comstock,R Dawn, AU - Marshall,Stephen W, AU - Kerr,Zachary Y, PY - 2020/02/01/pmc-release PY - 2019/4/6/entrez PY - 2019/4/6/pubmed PY - 2019/6/8/medline KW - ankle sprains KW - concussions KW - injury prevention KW - musculoskeletal injuries KW - overuse injuries SP - 212 EP - 225 JF - Journal of athletic training JO - J Athl Train VL - 54 IS - 2 N2 - CONTEXT: The advent of Web-based sports injury surveillance via programs such as the High School Reporting Information Online system and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program has aided the acquisition of girls' and women's softball injury data. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained in high school girls' softball in the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years and collegiate women's softball in the 2004-2005 through 2013-2014 academic years using Web-based sports injury surveillance. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Online injury surveillance from softball teams in high school girls (annual average = 100) and collegiate women (annual average = 41). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Girls' or women's softball players who participated in practices and competitions during the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years in high school and the 2004-2005 through 2013-2014 academic years in college. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Athletic trainers collected time-loss injury and exposure data. Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) were calculated. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared injury rates by competition level, school size or division, event type, and time in season. RESULTS: The High School Reporting Information Online system documented 1357 time-loss injuries during 1 173 722 AEs; the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program documented 1848 time-loss injuries during 579 553 AEs. The injury rate was higher in college than in high school (3.19 versus 1.16/1000 AEs; IRR = 2.76; 95% CI = 2.57, 2.96). The competition injury rate was higher than the practice injury rate in high school (IRR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.82, 2.25) and in college (IRR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.52). Softball players at both levels sustained a variety of injuries, with the most common being ankle sprains and concussions. Many injuries also occurred while fielding or running bases. CONCLUSIONS: Injury rates were greater in collegiate versus high school softball and in competitions versus practices. These findings highlight the need for injury-prevention interventions, including strength-training and prevention programs to reduce ankle sprains and provide protection for batters from pitches and fielders from batted balls. SN - 1938-162X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30951383/The_First_Decade_of_Web_Based_Sports_Injury_Surveillance:_Descriptive_Epidemiology_of_Injuries_in_US_High_School_Girls'_Softball__2005_2006_Through_2013_2014__and_National_Collegiate_Athletic_Association_Women's_Softball__2004_2005_Through_2013_2014__ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/30951383/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -