Evaluation of transformation products from chemical oxidation of micropollutants in wastewater by photoassisted generation of sulfate radicals.Chemosphere. 2019 Jul; 226:509-519.C
In this research, the degradation of seven different micropollutants (MPs) and the formation of their transformation products (TPs) have been assessed during the application of different advanced oxidation processes: photolytic and photocatalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate (PS). The results were compared with those obtained from the photolytic experiments using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant. A significant abatement of almost all MPs was achieved, even with very low UV-C contact time (9 and 28 s). The degradation of atenolol (ATN) and caffeine (CFN) ranged from 84 to 100% with a dose of 0.5 mM of any oxidant. The efficiencies for bisphenol-A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) varied depending on the oxidation system and operating conditions (oxidant dose and UV-C contact time), leading to the photolysis of PMS to higher efficiencies than PS and H2O2. In all cases, the abatement of MPs ranged from 63 to 83%, even with the lowest PMS dosage. Moreover, the addition of Fe(II) as a catalyst enhanced the removal efficiency, reaching almost total removal, especially over CBZ, DCF, and IBP. The Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) removal ranged between 44 and 62%, suggesting the transformation of MPs in intermediate compounds. The identification of transformation products was carried out for each micropollutant and each oxidation treatment, being observed some transformation products specific of oxidation by sulfate radicals. For example, m/z 165.0432 only appeared after PMS/Fe(II)/UV-C on the degradation of BFA, m/z 251.082 appeared after photolytic activation of PMS and PS on CBZ removal, and m/z 128.0452 was observed after any sulfate radical oxidation treatment, but not after photolysis of H2O2.