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The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements on the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites.
Polymers (Basel). 2019 Feb 12; 11(2)P

Abstract

We studied the effect of a multilevel presence of carbon-based reinforcements-a combination of conventional load-bearing unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and conductive CNT-containing nonwoven carbon nanofabric (CNF(CNT))-on the fire performance, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties of reference and flame-retarded epoxy resin (EP) composites. The inclusion of carbon fibers and flame retardant reduced the peak heat release rate (pHRR) of the epoxy resins. The extent to which the nanoreinforcements reduced the pHRR depended on their influence on thermal conductivity. Specifically, high thermal conductivity is advantageous at the early stages of degradation, but after ignition it may lead to more intensive degradation and a higher pHRR; especially in the reference samples without flame retardant. The lowest pHRR (130 kW/m²) and self-extinguishing V-0 UL-94 rating was achieved in the flame-retarded composite containing all three levels of carbon reinforcement (EP + CNF(CNT) + CNT + CF FR). The plasticizing effect of the liquid flame retardant impaired both the tensile and flexural properties; however, it significantly enhanced the impact resistance of the epoxy resin and its composites.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. atoldy@mail.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. szebenyi@pt.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. molnar@pt.bme.hu. MTA⁻BME Research Group for Composite Science and Technology, Műegyetem rkp. 3., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. molnar@pt.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. tothl@pt.bme.hu. Soete Laboratory, Department of Electrical Energy, Metals, Mechanical Constructions and Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903., B-9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium. tothl@pt.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. magyarb@pt.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. hlivav@pt.bme.hu.Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3-9., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. czigany@pt.bme.hu. MTA⁻BME Research Group for Composite Science and Technology, Műegyetem rkp. 3., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. czigany@pt.bme.hu.Department of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. bszolnoki@mail.bme.hu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30960287

Citation

Toldy, Andrea, et al. "The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements On the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites." Polymers, vol. 11, no. 2, 2019.
Toldy A, Szebényi G, Molnár K, et al. The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements on the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites. Polymers (Basel). 2019;11(2).
Toldy, A., Szebényi, G., Molnár, K., Tóth, L. F., Magyar, B., Hliva, V., Czigány, T., & Szolnoki, B. (2019). The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements on the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites. Polymers, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020303
Toldy A, et al. The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements On the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites. Polymers (Basel). 2019 Feb 12;11(2) PubMed PMID: 30960287.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of Multilevel Carbon Reinforcements on the Fire Performance, Conductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites. AU - Toldy,Andrea, AU - Szebényi,Gábor, AU - Molnár,Kolos, AU - Tóth,Levente Ferenc, AU - Magyar,Balázs, AU - Hliva,Viktor, AU - Czigány,Tibor, AU - Szolnoki,Beáta, Y1 - 2019/02/12/ PY - 2018/12/31/received PY - 2019/02/01/revised PY - 2019/02/06/accepted PY - 2019/4/10/entrez PY - 2019/4/10/pubmed PY - 2019/4/10/medline KW - carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite KW - carbon nanofiber KW - carbon nanotube KW - flame retardancy KW - thermal conductivity JF - Polymers JO - Polymers (Basel) VL - 11 IS - 2 N2 - We studied the effect of a multilevel presence of carbon-based reinforcements-a combination of conventional load-bearing unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and conductive CNT-containing nonwoven carbon nanofabric (CNF(CNT))-on the fire performance, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties of reference and flame-retarded epoxy resin (EP) composites. The inclusion of carbon fibers and flame retardant reduced the peak heat release rate (pHRR) of the epoxy resins. The extent to which the nanoreinforcements reduced the pHRR depended on their influence on thermal conductivity. Specifically, high thermal conductivity is advantageous at the early stages of degradation, but after ignition it may lead to more intensive degradation and a higher pHRR; especially in the reference samples without flame retardant. The lowest pHRR (130 kW/m²) and self-extinguishing V-0 UL-94 rating was achieved in the flame-retarded composite containing all three levels of carbon reinforcement (EP + CNF(CNT) + CNT + CF FR). The plasticizing effect of the liquid flame retardant impaired both the tensile and flexural properties; however, it significantly enhanced the impact resistance of the epoxy resin and its composites. SN - 2073-4360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30960287/The_Effect_of_Multilevel_Carbon_Reinforcements_on_the_Fire_Performance_Conductivity_and_Mechanical_Properties_of_Epoxy_Composites_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=polym11020303 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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