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Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11.
Materials (Basel). 2019 Apr 08; 12(7)M

Abstract

Flame retardancy of polymers is a recurring obligation for many applications. The development trend of biobased materials is no exception to this rule, and solutions of flame retardants from agro-resources give an advantage. Lignin is produced as a waste by-product from some industries, and can be used in the intumescent formation development as a source of carbon combined with an acid source. In this study, the flame retardancy of polyamide 11 (PA) is carried out by extrusion with a kraft lignin (KL) and ammonium polyphosphate (AP). The study of the optimal ratio between the KL and the AP makes it possible to optimize the fire properties as well as to reduce the cost and facilitates the implementation of the blend by a melting process. The properties of thermal decomposition and the fire reaction have been studied by thermogravimetric analyzes, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and vertical flame spread tests (UL94). KL permits a charring effect delaying thermal degradation and decreases by 66% the peak of heat release rate in comparison with raw PA. The fire reaction of the ternary blends is improved even if KL-AP association does not have a synergy effect. The 25/75 and 33/67 KL/AP ratios in PA give an intumescence behavior under flame exposure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

ENSAIT, GEMTEX-Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F-59000 Lille, France. aurelie.cayla@ensait.fr.ENSAIT, GEMTEX-Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F-59000 Lille, France. francois.rault@ensait.fr.ENSAIT, GEMTEX-Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F-59000 Lille, France. stephane.giraud@ensait.fr.ENSAIT, GEMTEX-Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F-59000 Lille, France. fabien.salaun@ensait.fr.IMT Mines d'Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d'Alès⁻Pôle Matériaux Polymères Avancés, 30100 Alès, France. rodolphe.sonnier@mines-ales.fr.IMT Mines d'Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d'Alès⁻Pôle Matériaux Polymères Avancés, 30100 Alès, France. loic.dumazert@mines-ales.fr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30965684

Citation

Cayla, Aurélie, et al. "Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio On Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: the Case of Polyamide 11." Materials (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 7, 2019.
Cayla A, Rault F, Giraud S, et al. Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11. Materials (Basel). 2019;12(7).
Cayla, A., Rault, F., Giraud, S., Salaün, F., Sonnier, R., & Dumazert, L. (2019). Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11. Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071146
Cayla A, et al. Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio On Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: the Case of Polyamide 11. Materials (Basel). 2019 Apr 8;12(7) PubMed PMID: 30965684.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11. AU - Cayla,Aurélie, AU - Rault,François, AU - Giraud,Stéphane, AU - Salaün,Fabien, AU - Sonnier,Rodolphe, AU - Dumazert,Loïc, Y1 - 2019/04/08/ PY - 2019/03/17/received PY - 2019/04/06/revised PY - 2019/04/07/accepted PY - 2019/4/11/entrez PY - 2019/4/11/pubmed PY - 2019/4/11/medline KW - ammonium polyphosphate KW - fire reaction KW - lignin KW - polyamide 11 KW - thermal decomposition JF - Materials (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Materials (Basel) VL - 12 IS - 7 N2 - Flame retardancy of polymers is a recurring obligation for many applications. The development trend of biobased materials is no exception to this rule, and solutions of flame retardants from agro-resources give an advantage. Lignin is produced as a waste by-product from some industries, and can be used in the intumescent formation development as a source of carbon combined with an acid source. In this study, the flame retardancy of polyamide 11 (PA) is carried out by extrusion with a kraft lignin (KL) and ammonium polyphosphate (AP). The study of the optimal ratio between the KL and the AP makes it possible to optimize the fire properties as well as to reduce the cost and facilitates the implementation of the blend by a melting process. The properties of thermal decomposition and the fire reaction have been studied by thermogravimetric analyzes, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and vertical flame spread tests (UL94). KL permits a charring effect delaying thermal degradation and decreases by 66% the peak of heat release rate in comparison with raw PA. The fire reaction of the ternary blends is improved even if KL-AP association does not have a synergy effect. The 25/75 and 33/67 KL/AP ratios in PA give an intumescence behavior under flame exposure. SN - 1996-1944 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30965684/Influence_of_Ammonium_Polyphosphate/Lignin_Ratio_on_Thermal_and_Fire_Behavior_of_Biobased_Thermoplastic:_The_Case_of_Polyamide_11 L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ma12071146 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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