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Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation with Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests.
Int J Prev Med 2019; 10:36IJ

Abstract

Background

Lead may be added to the opium by drug smugglers. It can cause elevated blood lead level (BLL) in opium-addicted patients. Erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity is susceptible to high BLL. The aim of this study was to find out whether opium-addicted patients show erythropathy and elevated liver enzymes explainable by high BLL and decreased P5N activity.

Methods

Forty orally opium-addicted subjects and 40 normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. BLL was measured in whole blood specimens using atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation. Enzymatic activity, protein amount of P5N, and erythrocyte purine/pyrimidine ratio were determined. Blood films were analyzed for the presence of basophilic stippling of red cells and hemolytic anemia. The level of liver function enzymes was measured.

Results

The mean BLL for opium-addicted patients was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.001). On the contrary, P5N activity showed a valid decrease in opium-addicted patients when compared with control group (P < 0.001). In line with repressed P5N activity, erythrocyte purine/pyrimidine ratio in patients was lower than control group (P < 0.001). A statistically significant reverse correlation was found between BLL and P5N activity (P < 0.05, r = -0.85). The prevalence of both basophilic stippling (P < 0.001, z = 6.62) and hemolytic anemia (P < 0.001, z = 6.52) in study population was significantly associated with elevated BLL. We could not find any significant correlation between serum level of liver enzymes and BLL.

Conclusions

Opium-addicted patients in Tehran, Iran, are at high risk of lead poisoning which may result in hematologic problems and possibly hepatic damage.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS), Tehran, Iran.Department of Forensic Toxicology, Legal Medicine Research Center, Legal Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran.Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30967922

Citation

Fakoor, Mandana, et al. "Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation With Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests." International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 10, 2019, p. 36.
Fakoor M, Akhgari M, Shafaroodi H. Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation with Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests. Int J Prev Med. 2019;10:36.
Fakoor, M., Akhgari, M., & Shafaroodi, H. (2019). Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation with Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10, p. 36. doi:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_490_18.
Fakoor M, Akhgari M, Shafaroodi H. Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation With Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests. Int J Prev Med. 2019;10:36. PubMed PMID: 30967922.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Lead Poisoning in Opium-Addicted Subjects, Its Correlation with Pyrimidine 5'-Nucleotidase Activity and Liver Function Tests. AU - Fakoor,Mandana, AU - Akhgari,Maryam, AU - Shafaroodi,Hamed, Y1 - 2019/03/05/ PY - 2018/10/24/received PY - 2019/01/31/accepted PY - 2019/4/11/entrez PY - 2019/4/11/pubmed PY - 2019/4/11/medline KW - Anemia KW - lead poisoning KW - liver function tests KW - opium KW - pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase SP - 36 EP - 36 JF - International journal of preventive medicine JO - Int J Prev Med VL - 10 N2 - Background: Lead may be added to the opium by drug smugglers. It can cause elevated blood lead level (BLL) in opium-addicted patients. Erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity is susceptible to high BLL. The aim of this study was to find out whether opium-addicted patients show erythropathy and elevated liver enzymes explainable by high BLL and decreased P5N activity. Methods: Forty orally opium-addicted subjects and 40 normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. BLL was measured in whole blood specimens using atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation. Enzymatic activity, protein amount of P5N, and erythrocyte purine/pyrimidine ratio were determined. Blood films were analyzed for the presence of basophilic stippling of red cells and hemolytic anemia. The level of liver function enzymes was measured. Results: The mean BLL for opium-addicted patients was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.001). On the contrary, P5N activity showed a valid decrease in opium-addicted patients when compared with control group (P < 0.001). In line with repressed P5N activity, erythrocyte purine/pyrimidine ratio in patients was lower than control group (P < 0.001). A statistically significant reverse correlation was found between BLL and P5N activity (P < 0.05, r = -0.85). The prevalence of both basophilic stippling (P < 0.001, z = 6.62) and hemolytic anemia (P < 0.001, z = 6.52) in study population was significantly associated with elevated BLL. We could not find any significant correlation between serum level of liver enzymes and BLL. Conclusions: Opium-addicted patients in Tehran, Iran, are at high risk of lead poisoning which may result in hematologic problems and possibly hepatic damage. SN - 2008-7802 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30967922/Lead_Poisoning_in_Opium_Addicted_Subjects_Its_Correlation_with_Pyrimidine_5'_Nucleotidase_Activity_and_Liver_Function_Tests_ L2 - http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/article.asp?issn=2008-7802;year=2019;volume=10;issue=1;spage=36;epage=36;aulast=Fakoor DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -