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Perceptions of, and Practices for Coping with, Heat Exposure among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436.
Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019 Apr; 34(2):161-174.PD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The problems associated with exposure to excessive heat are a key health concern throughout the world, and are likely to become increasingly important as Earth's climate warms. Heat exposure is particularly problematic when large groups of people gather, but there is relatively little literature on the subject. Islam requires all adherents who are able to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca (Saudi Arabia), known as the Hajj. This can result in huge numbers of pilgrims travelling to Mecca in the summer months, during which the temperatures can be very high, and to undertake physically demanding activities.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to identify the perception level of heat-related health issues and the coping behaviors adopted by pilgrims in the face of excessive heat exposure.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mecca, Saudi Arabia among male Arab pilgrims performing Hajj of the Islamic calendar year 1436 (Summer 2015). Sample was divided into two strata: domestic pilgrims and international Arabs. A total of 14 camps were selected randomly, seven from each stratum. A total of 412 participants completed the questionnaire.

RESULTS

Mean age was 43.48 (SD = 13.42) years. Majority of pilgrims had never performed Hajj before (68.2%). Almost 89.5% among pilgrims more than 40 years of age had more water intake compared to only 76.5% for people under 40 years. Only 7.3% of educated people used to go out at noon time, and almost two-fold of pilgrims with lower educational level did so (15.4%). Approximately 51.8% among those who were aware of Mecca's weather used cotton clothes, compared to 36.0% among pilgrims unaware of Mecca's weather.

CONCLUSION

This study reveals the extent of pilgrims' understanding of, and abilities to cope with, excessive heat and also suggests coping strategies and options for improved understanding of heat-related health issues world-wide.Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and practices for coping with, heat exposure among male Arab pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161-174.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1.Resident Field Epidemiology Training Program,Riyadh,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.2.Professor of Public Health & Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,Tanta University,Tanta,Egypt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30968815

Citation

Al Mayahi, Zayid K., and Ibrahim Ali Kabbash. "Perceptions Of, and Practices for Coping With, Heat Exposure Among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436." Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, vol. 34, no. 2, 2019, pp. 161-174.
Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and Practices for Coping with, Heat Exposure among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161-174.
Al Mayahi, Z. K., & Ali Kabbash, I. (2019). Perceptions of, and Practices for Coping with, Heat Exposure among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 34(2), 161-174. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X19000025
Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions Of, and Practices for Coping With, Heat Exposure Among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161-174. PubMed PMID: 30968815.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Perceptions of, and Practices for Coping with, Heat Exposure among Male Arab Pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. AU - Al Mayahi,Zayid K, AU - Ali Kabbash,Ibrahim, Y1 - 2019/04/10/ PY - 2019/4/11/pubmed PY - 2019/12/18/medline PY - 2019/4/11/entrez KW - Hajj KW - climate change KW - cross-sectional study KW - excessive heat KW - heat exposure SP - 161 EP - 174 JF - Prehospital and disaster medicine JO - Prehosp Disaster Med VL - 34 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The problems associated with exposure to excessive heat are a key health concern throughout the world, and are likely to become increasingly important as Earth's climate warms. Heat exposure is particularly problematic when large groups of people gather, but there is relatively little literature on the subject. Islam requires all adherents who are able to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca (Saudi Arabia), known as the Hajj. This can result in huge numbers of pilgrims travelling to Mecca in the summer months, during which the temperatures can be very high, and to undertake physically demanding activities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the perception level of heat-related health issues and the coping behaviors adopted by pilgrims in the face of excessive heat exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mecca, Saudi Arabia among male Arab pilgrims performing Hajj of the Islamic calendar year 1436 (Summer 2015). Sample was divided into two strata: domestic pilgrims and international Arabs. A total of 14 camps were selected randomly, seven from each stratum. A total of 412 participants completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean age was 43.48 (SD = 13.42) years. Majority of pilgrims had never performed Hajj before (68.2%). Almost 89.5% among pilgrims more than 40 years of age had more water intake compared to only 76.5% for people under 40 years. Only 7.3% of educated people used to go out at noon time, and almost two-fold of pilgrims with lower educational level did so (15.4%). Approximately 51.8% among those who were aware of Mecca's weather used cotton clothes, compared to 36.0% among pilgrims unaware of Mecca's weather. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the extent of pilgrims' understanding of, and abilities to cope with, excessive heat and also suggests coping strategies and options for improved understanding of heat-related health issues world-wide.Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and practices for coping with, heat exposure among male Arab pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161-174. SN - 1945-1938 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30968815/Perceptions_of_and_Practices_for_Coping_with_Heat_Exposure_among_Male_Arab_Pilgrims_to_the_Hajj_1436_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -