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Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists.
Insects. 2019 Apr 10; 10(4)I

Abstract

Cardiac glycosides, cardenolides and bufadienolides, are elaborated by several plant or animal species to prevent grazing or predation. Entomologists have characterized several insect species that have evolved the ability to sequester these glycosides in their tissues to reduce their palatability and, thus, reduce predation. Cardiac glycosides are known to interact with the sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, or sodium pump, through a specific receptor-binding site. Over the last couple of decades, and since entomologic studies, it has become clear that mammals synthesize endogenous cardenolides that closely resemble or are identical to compounds of plant origin and those sequestered by insects. The most important of these are ouabain-like compounds. These compounds are essential for the regulation of normal ionic physiology in mammals. Importantly, at physiologic picomolar or nanomolar concentrations, endogenous ouabain, a cardenolide, stimulates the sodium pump, activates second messengers, and may even function as a growth factor. This is in contrast to the pharmacologic or toxic micromolar or milimolar concentrations achieved after consumption of exogenous cardenolides (by consuming medications, plants, or insects), which inhibit the pump and result in either a desired medical outcome, or the toxic consequence of sodium pump inhibition.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. rselma01@louisville.edu.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. kjsb03@hotmail.com.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. rajashekar.yeruva@louisville.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30974764

Citation

El-Mallakh, Rif S., et al. "Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists." Insects, vol. 10, no. 4, 2019.
El-Mallakh RS, Brar KS, Yeruva RR. Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists. Insects. 2019;10(4).
El-Mallakh, R. S., Brar, K. S., & Yeruva, R. R. (2019). Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists. Insects, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040102
El-Mallakh RS, Brar KS, Yeruva RR. Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists. Insects. 2019 Apr 10;10(4) PubMed PMID: 30974764.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cardiac Glycosides in Human Physiology and Disease: Update for Entomologists. AU - El-Mallakh,Rif S, AU - Brar,Kanwarjeet S, AU - Yeruva,Rajashekar Reddy, Y1 - 2019/04/10/ PY - 2019/02/11/received PY - 2019/03/28/revised PY - 2019/03/29/accepted PY - 2019/4/13/entrez PY - 2019/4/13/pubmed PY - 2019/4/13/medline KW - Na,K-ATPase KW - cardenolides KW - cardiac glycosides KW - digitoxin KW - digoxin KW - entomology KW - ouabain KW - sodium pump JF - Insects JO - Insects VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - Cardiac glycosides, cardenolides and bufadienolides, are elaborated by several plant or animal species to prevent grazing or predation. Entomologists have characterized several insect species that have evolved the ability to sequester these glycosides in their tissues to reduce their palatability and, thus, reduce predation. Cardiac glycosides are known to interact with the sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, or sodium pump, through a specific receptor-binding site. Over the last couple of decades, and since entomologic studies, it has become clear that mammals synthesize endogenous cardenolides that closely resemble or are identical to compounds of plant origin and those sequestered by insects. The most important of these are ouabain-like compounds. These compounds are essential for the regulation of normal ionic physiology in mammals. Importantly, at physiologic picomolar or nanomolar concentrations, endogenous ouabain, a cardenolide, stimulates the sodium pump, activates second messengers, and may even function as a growth factor. This is in contrast to the pharmacologic or toxic micromolar or milimolar concentrations achieved after consumption of exogenous cardenolides (by consuming medications, plants, or insects), which inhibit the pump and result in either a desired medical outcome, or the toxic consequence of sodium pump inhibition. SN - 2075-4450 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30974764/Cardiac_Glycosides_in_Human_Physiology_and_Disease:_Update_for_Entomologists L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=insects10040102 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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