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Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort.

Abstract

Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and other food groups in six groups of meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study. The data were from 30,239 participants who answered questions regarding their consumption of meat, fish, dairy or eggs and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2010. Participants were categorized as regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. FFQ foods were categorized into 45 food groups and analysis of variance was used to test for differences between age-adjusted mean intakes of each food group by diet group. Regular meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, respectively, consumed about a third, quarter and a fifth of their total energy intake from high protein-source foods. Compared with regular meat-eaters, low and non-meat-eaters consumed higher amounts of high-protein meat alternatives (soy, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds) and other plant-based foods (whole grains, vegetables, fruits) and lower amounts of refined grains, fried foods, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages. These findings provide insight into potential nutritional explanations for differences in health outcomes between diet groups.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Keren.Papier@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Tammy.Tong@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. paul.appleby@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    National Institute for Health Innovation, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand. k.bradbury@auckland.ac.nz.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Georgina.Fensom@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. anika.knuppel@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Aurora.Perez-Cornago@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. julie.schmidt@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

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    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ruth.travis@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. tim.key@ndph.ox.ac.uk.

    Source

    Nutrients 11:4 2019 Apr 11 pg

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    30979052

    Citation

    Papier, Keren, et al. "Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort." Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 4, 2019.
    Papier K, Tong TY, Appleby PN, et al. Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. Nutrients. 2019;11(4).
    Papier, K., Tong, T. Y., Appleby, P. N., Bradbury, K. E., Fensom, G. K., Knuppel, A., ... Key, T. J. (2019). Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. Nutrients, 11(4), doi:10.3390/nu11040824.
    Papier K, et al. Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 11;11(4) PubMed PMID: 30979052.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. AU - Papier,Keren, AU - Tong,Tammy Yn, AU - Appleby,Paul N, AU - Bradbury,Kathryn E, AU - Fensom,Georgina K, AU - Knuppel,Anika, AU - Perez-Cornago,Aurora, AU - Schmidt,Julie A, AU - Travis,Ruth C, AU - Key,Timothy J, Y1 - 2019/04/11/ PY - 2019/03/20/received PY - 2019/04/02/revised PY - 2019/04/09/accepted PY - 2019/4/14/entrez KW - cohort KW - diet KW - food intake KW - low-meat KW - vegans KW - vegetarians JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 11 IS - 4 N2 - Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and other food groups in six groups of meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study. The data were from 30,239 participants who answered questions regarding their consumption of meat, fish, dairy or eggs and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2010. Participants were categorized as regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. FFQ foods were categorized into 45 food groups and analysis of variance was used to test for differences between age-adjusted mean intakes of each food group by diet group. Regular meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, respectively, consumed about a third, quarter and a fifth of their total energy intake from high protein-source foods. Compared with regular meat-eaters, low and non-meat-eaters consumed higher amounts of high-protein meat alternatives (soy, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds) and other plant-based foods (whole grains, vegetables, fruits) and lower amounts of refined grains, fried foods, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages. These findings provide insight into potential nutritional explanations for differences in health outcomes between diet groups. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30979052/Comparison_of_Major_Protein-Source_Foods_and_Other_Food_Groups_in_Meat-Eaters_and_Non-Meat-Eaters_in_the_EPIC-Oxford_Cohort L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu11040824 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -