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Anthelmintic efficacy of single active and combination products against commonly occurring parasites in foals.
Vet Parasitol. 2019 Apr; 268:46-52.VP

Abstract

Parasite control in foals is complicated by the concurrent presence of biologically diverse parasites with differing levels of anthelmintic resistance. Several combination anthelmintic products are available for use in horses, but information on their efficacies against important equine parasites is scarce. Two trials were performed in New Zealand during 2008 and 2011 on four different farms with substantially different anthelmintic treatment histories. The first trial evaluated the efficacy of an ivermectin/praziquantel/oxibendazole combination, a single active oxibendazole, and a single-active macrocyclic lactone (ML) in 49 foals located on three farms. The second trial evaluated two combination anthelmintic products and three single-active ML products and enrolled a total of 110 foals on three farms. Foals in the second trial were allocated to one of six anthelmintic treatment groups; oxfendazole/pyrantel embonate, pyrantel embonate/ivermectin/praziquantel, ivermectin/praziquantel, abamectin/praziquantel, moxidectin/praziquantel, and a placebo-treated control. In both trials, foals were monitored monthly prior to treatment, and fecal egg counts (FECs) of Parascaris spp., strongylid, and Strongyloides westeri were determined. A "rolling enrolment" process was implemented whereby foals were systematically allocated to a treatment group and treated with the corresponding anthelmintic following the first appearance of Parascaris spp. eggs in the faeces. A generalised linear model was used to evaluate the effect of farm and treatment on Day14 FEC (ln) for each parasite. Three different FECR calculation methods were employed as follows; i) FECR(T) pre and post treatment ii) FECR (C) in the treated group compared with control, and iii) FECR (P) pre- and post- treatment in the treated and control groups. Across both trials, treatment with ML single active products failed to achieve >95% reduction in Parascaris spp. FEC on two of three farms. The pyrantel embonate/oxfendazole and ivermectin/ praziquantel/oxibendazole combinations demonstrated full efficacy against Parascaris spp. This is in contrast to the anti-strongylid efficacies determined, where the pyrantel embonate/oxfendazole combination and single active oxibendazole had reduced efficacy on one farm, while the macrocyclic lactones generally had good efficacy. Strongyloides egg counts were sporadic in both trials, and allowed limited insight into anthelmintic efficacy. The study illustrated the importance of keeping an untreated or placebo-treated control group in studies evaluating anti-Parascaris efficacy and it demonstrated the utility of a rolling enrolment procedure, where foals are enrolled over the course of a defined period of time. Furthermore, the study demonstrated the value of a farm specific FECR monitoring programme and the complexity of parasite control in foals, where combination anthelmintic products can be employed to target multiple species of parasites.

Authors+Show Affiliations

EquiBreed NZ Ltd, 399 Parklands Rd, RD 1, Te Awamutu, 3879, New Zealand. Electronic address: lee@equibreed.co.nz.SCEC Pty Ltd, PO Box 211, Northbridge, NSW, Australia.AgResearch Grasslands, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand.Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial, Veterinary
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30981305

Citation

Morris, L H., et al. "Anthelmintic Efficacy of Single Active and Combination Products Against Commonly Occurring Parasites in Foals." Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 268, 2019, pp. 46-52.
Morris LH, Colgan S, Leathwick DM, et al. Anthelmintic efficacy of single active and combination products against commonly occurring parasites in foals. Vet Parasitol. 2019;268:46-52.
Morris, L. H., Colgan, S., Leathwick, D. M., & Nielsen, M. K. (2019). Anthelmintic efficacy of single active and combination products against commonly occurring parasites in foals. Veterinary Parasitology, 268, 46-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2019.02.006
Morris LH, et al. Anthelmintic Efficacy of Single Active and Combination Products Against Commonly Occurring Parasites in Foals. Vet Parasitol. 2019;268:46-52. PubMed PMID: 30981305.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anthelmintic efficacy of single active and combination products against commonly occurring parasites in foals. AU - Morris,L H, AU - Colgan,S, AU - Leathwick,D M, AU - Nielsen,M K, Y1 - 2019/03/01/ PY - 2018/12/10/received PY - 2019/02/23/revised PY - 2019/02/26/accepted PY - 2019/4/15/entrez PY - 2019/4/15/pubmed PY - 2019/5/14/medline KW - Anthelmintic resistance KW - Combination anthelmintics KW - Foals KW - Parascaris spp. KW - Strongylid KW - Strongyloides westeri SP - 46 EP - 52 JF - Veterinary parasitology JO - Vet Parasitol VL - 268 N2 - Parasite control in foals is complicated by the concurrent presence of biologically diverse parasites with differing levels of anthelmintic resistance. Several combination anthelmintic products are available for use in horses, but information on their efficacies against important equine parasites is scarce. Two trials were performed in New Zealand during 2008 and 2011 on four different farms with substantially different anthelmintic treatment histories. The first trial evaluated the efficacy of an ivermectin/praziquantel/oxibendazole combination, a single active oxibendazole, and a single-active macrocyclic lactone (ML) in 49 foals located on three farms. The second trial evaluated two combination anthelmintic products and three single-active ML products and enrolled a total of 110 foals on three farms. Foals in the second trial were allocated to one of six anthelmintic treatment groups; oxfendazole/pyrantel embonate, pyrantel embonate/ivermectin/praziquantel, ivermectin/praziquantel, abamectin/praziquantel, moxidectin/praziquantel, and a placebo-treated control. In both trials, foals were monitored monthly prior to treatment, and fecal egg counts (FECs) of Parascaris spp., strongylid, and Strongyloides westeri were determined. A "rolling enrolment" process was implemented whereby foals were systematically allocated to a treatment group and treated with the corresponding anthelmintic following the first appearance of Parascaris spp. eggs in the faeces. A generalised linear model was used to evaluate the effect of farm and treatment on Day14 FEC (ln) for each parasite. Three different FECR calculation methods were employed as follows; i) FECR(T) pre and post treatment ii) FECR (C) in the treated group compared with control, and iii) FECR (P) pre- and post- treatment in the treated and control groups. Across both trials, treatment with ML single active products failed to achieve >95% reduction in Parascaris spp. FEC on two of three farms. The pyrantel embonate/oxfendazole and ivermectin/ praziquantel/oxibendazole combinations demonstrated full efficacy against Parascaris spp. This is in contrast to the anti-strongylid efficacies determined, where the pyrantel embonate/oxfendazole combination and single active oxibendazole had reduced efficacy on one farm, while the macrocyclic lactones generally had good efficacy. Strongyloides egg counts were sporadic in both trials, and allowed limited insight into anthelmintic efficacy. The study illustrated the importance of keeping an untreated or placebo-treated control group in studies evaluating anti-Parascaris efficacy and it demonstrated the utility of a rolling enrolment procedure, where foals are enrolled over the course of a defined period of time. Furthermore, the study demonstrated the value of a farm specific FECR monitoring programme and the complexity of parasite control in foals, where combination anthelmintic products can be employed to target multiple species of parasites. SN - 1873-2550 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30981305/Anthelmintic_efficacy_of_single_active_and_combination_products_against_commonly_occurring_parasites_in_foals_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304-4017(19)30048-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -