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Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile.
PLoS One 2019; 14(4):e0213667Plos

Abstract

The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given the high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wildlife Conservation Society Chile, Punta Arenas, Chile.ConserLab, Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.Wildlife Conservation Society, Zoological Health Program, Bronx, NY, United States of America.Wildlife Conservation Society, Zoological Health Program, Bronx, NY, United States of America.Ultrastructural Pathology Unit, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States of America.Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States of America.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States of America.Departamento de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas, Corporación Nacional Forestal, Chillán, Chile.Departamento de Patología y Medicina Preventiva, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Chile.Departamento de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas, Corporación Nacional Forestal, Punta Arenas, Chile.Departamento de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas, Corporación Nacional Forestal, Punta Arenas, Chile.Departamento de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas, Corporación Nacional Forestal, Punta Arenas, Chile.One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30995215

Citation

Vila, Alejandro R., et al. "Putative Parapoxvirus-associated Foot Disease in the Endangered Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus Bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile." PloS One, vol. 14, no. 4, 2019, pp. e0213667.
Vila AR, Briceño C, McAloose D, et al. Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4):e0213667.
Vila, A. R., Briceño, C., McAloose, D., Seimon, T. A., Armién, A. G., Mauldin, E. A., ... Uhart, M. M. (2019). Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile. PloS One, 14(4), pp. e0213667. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213667.
Vila AR, et al. Putative Parapoxvirus-associated Foot Disease in the Endangered Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus Bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4):e0213667. PubMed PMID: 30995215.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile. AU - Vila,Alejandro R, AU - Briceño,Cristóbal, AU - McAloose,Denise, AU - Seimon,Tracie A, AU - Armién,Anibal G, AU - Mauldin,Elizabeth A, AU - Be,Nicholas A, AU - Thissen,James B, AU - Hinojosa,Ana, AU - Quezada,Manuel, AU - Paredes,José, AU - Avendaño,Iván, AU - Silva,Alejandra, AU - Uhart,Marcela M, Y1 - 2019/04/17/ PY - 2018/10/15/received PY - 2019/02/26/accepted PY - 2019/4/18/entrez PY - 2019/4/18/pubmed PY - 2019/4/18/medline SP - e0213667 EP - e0213667 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given the high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30995215/Putative_parapoxvirus-associated_foot_disease_in_the_endangered_huemul_deer_(Hippocamelus_bisulcus)_in_Bernardo_O'Higgins_National_Park,_Chile L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213667 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -