Fruit and Vegetable Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Related Metabolic Acidosis Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Better than Sodium Bicarbonate.Am J Nephrol. 2019; 49(6):438-448.AJ
Current guidelines recommend treatment of metabolic acidosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sodium-based alkali. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with base-producing fruits and vegetables (F + V) better improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indicators than oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
We randomized 108 macroalbuminuric, matched, nondiabetic CKD patients with metabolic acidosis to F + V (n = 36) in amounts to reduce dietary acid by half, oral NaHCO3 (HCO3, n = 36) 0.3 mEq/kg bw/day, or to Usual Care (UC, n = 36) to assess the 5-year effect of these interventions on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) course as the primary analysis and on indicators of CVD risk as the secondary analysis.
Five-year plasma total CO2 was higher in HCO3 and F + V than UC but was not different between HCO3 and F + V (difference p value < 0.01). Five-year net eGFR decrease was less in HCO3 (mean -12.3, 95% CI -12.9 to -11.7 mL/min/1.73 m2) and F + V (-10.0, 95% CI -10.6 to -9.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) than UC (-18.8, 95% CI -19.5 to -18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2; p value < 0.01) but was not different between HCO3 and F + V. Five-year systolic blood pressure was lower in F + V than UC and HCO3 (p value < 0.01). Despite similar baseline values, F + V had lower low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a), and higher serum vitamin K1 (low serum K1 is associated with coronary artery calcification) than HCO3 and UC at 5 years.
Metabolic acidosis improvement and eGFR preservation were comparable in CKD patients treated with F + V or oral NaHCO3 but F + V better improved CVD risk indicators, making it a potentially better treatment option for reducing CVD risk.