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Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues from 12 Cities.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 04 17; 16(8)IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Turkey passed a law banning smoking in all indoor public places in 2008. In response to the indoor smoking restriction, many smokers may have relocated to outdoor areas of venues. The aim of this study was to evaluate air pollution related to SHS exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of hospitality venues in 12 cities in Turkey.

METHOD

In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated hospitality venues in 12 cities in Turkey. In each visited venue, we evaluated a pre-specified number of study locations such as the outdoor area of the main entrance, indoor areas, and patios or other outdoor dining areas, completely or partially covered with window walls. We measured particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in those areas.

RESULTS

The fieldworkers visited 72 randomly selected hospitality venues and measured PM2.5 concentrations in 165 different locations (indoor, outdoor, and patios) of those venues. Overall, 2573 people were observed, 909 of them smoking. The median (IQR) PM2.5 concentrations were 95 (39-229) μg/m3 indoors, 25 (13-48) μg/m3 outdoors, and 31 μg/m3 (16-62) in the patios (p < 0.001). After adjustment, each additional smoker was associated with a 2% increase in PM2.5 concentrations in patio air (GMR (95% CI): 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), and a 4% increase in indoor air (GMR (95% CI): 1.04 (1.02, 1.05).

CONCLUSIONS

There were unhealthy levels of smoking-caused PM2.5 concentrations, not only indoors, but also in the patios of hospitality venues. Legislative efforts to expand the smoke-free legislation to outdoor areas adjacent to indoor public places and an action plan to increase compliance with the smoke-free policy are urgently needed in Turkey.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. bkaplan9@jhu.edu.Department of Psychology, Kadir Has University, Istanbul 34083, Turkey. asli.carkoglu@khas.edu.tr.Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir 35220, Turkey. gul.ergor@deu.edu.tr.Department of Preventive Oncology, Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, Ankara 06230, Turkey. kmhayran@gmail.com.Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28801 Madrid, Spain. francisca.sureda@uah.es.Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. jcohen@jhu.edu.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, NY 10032, USA. an2737@cumc.columbia.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30999605

Citation

Kaplan, Bekir, et al. "Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues From 12 Cities." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no. 8, 2019.
Kaplan B, Carkoglu A, Ergor G, et al. Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues from 12 Cities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(8).
Kaplan, B., Carkoglu, A., Ergor, G., Hayran, M., Sureda, X., Cohen, J. E., & Navas-Acien, A. (2019). Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues from 12 Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081381
Kaplan B, et al. Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues From 12 Cities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 04 17;16(8) PubMed PMID: 30999605.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Secondhand Smoke Using PM2.5 and Observations in a Random Stratified Sample in Hospitality Venues from 12 Cities. AU - Kaplan,Bekir, AU - Carkoglu,Asli, AU - Ergor,Gul, AU - Hayran,Mutlu, AU - Sureda,Xisca, AU - Cohen,Joanna E, AU - Navas-Acien,Ana, Y1 - 2019/04/17/ PY - 2019/01/15/received PY - 2019/03/22/revised PY - 2019/04/12/accepted PY - 2019/4/20/entrez PY - 2019/4/20/pubmed PY - 2019/10/29/medline KW - PM2.5 KW - Turkey KW - hospitality venue KW - secondhand smoke JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 16 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Turkey passed a law banning smoking in all indoor public places in 2008. In response to the indoor smoking restriction, many smokers may have relocated to outdoor areas of venues. The aim of this study was to evaluate air pollution related to SHS exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of hospitality venues in 12 cities in Turkey. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated hospitality venues in 12 cities in Turkey. In each visited venue, we evaluated a pre-specified number of study locations such as the outdoor area of the main entrance, indoor areas, and patios or other outdoor dining areas, completely or partially covered with window walls. We measured particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in those areas. RESULTS: The fieldworkers visited 72 randomly selected hospitality venues and measured PM2.5 concentrations in 165 different locations (indoor, outdoor, and patios) of those venues. Overall, 2573 people were observed, 909 of them smoking. The median (IQR) PM2.5 concentrations were 95 (39-229) μg/m3 indoors, 25 (13-48) μg/m3 outdoors, and 31 μg/m3 (16-62) in the patios (p < 0.001). After adjustment, each additional smoker was associated with a 2% increase in PM2.5 concentrations in patio air (GMR (95% CI): 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), and a 4% increase in indoor air (GMR (95% CI): 1.04 (1.02, 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were unhealthy levels of smoking-caused PM2.5 concentrations, not only indoors, but also in the patios of hospitality venues. Legislative efforts to expand the smoke-free legislation to outdoor areas adjacent to indoor public places and an action plan to increase compliance with the smoke-free policy are urgently needed in Turkey. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30999605/Evaluation_of_Secondhand_Smoke_Using_PM2_5_and_Observations_in_a_Random_Stratified_Sample_in_Hospitality_Venues_from_12_Cities_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph16081381 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -