Comparative Analysis of Volatiles of 15 Brands of Extra-Virgin Olive Oils Using Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction and Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation.Molecules. 2019 Apr 17; 24(8)M
Aroma profiles, key aroma compound quantification, and cluster analysis of 15 brands of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from three countries (Spain, Italy, and Greece) were investigated in the current study. Aroma compounds were isolated from the oil by using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry (GC-MS/O). A total of 89 compounds were screened by SPME/SAFE-GC-MS/O with chromatographic columns in 15 brands of samples. Eighty and 54 compounds were respectively identified by SPME- and SAFE-GC-MS/O. Of those, 44 compounds were detected by both methods. Undecanol, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, and 2-nonanone extracted by SAFE were not found in EVOOs before. Eight classes of aroma compounds were identified, including 17 alcohols, 22 aldehydes, 9 ketones, 4 acids, 14 esters, 5 aromatics, 12 alkene, and 6 others. Eleven compounds were identified as the key aroma compounds in alternative brands of EVOOs by SAFE-aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-3-hexenol, acetic acid, and (E)-2-heptenal were the common key aroma compounds by AEDA and odor activity values (OAVs). From the cluster analysis of the heatmap, the aroma compounds of all the Spain EVOOs were similar, and there were some differences from the samples of Italy and Greece. It suggested that both the amount and concentration of aroma compounds determine the similarity of aroma in EVOOs.