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High Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals is Not Increased by Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women.
J Nutr. 2019 05 01; 149(5):723-729.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

It is challenging to find an iron compound that combines good bioavailability with minimal sensory changes when added to seasonings or condiments. Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is currently used to fortify bouillon cubes, but its bioavailability is generally low. Previously, the addition of a stabilizer, sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP), improved iron bioavailability from a bouillon drink.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed whether there is a dose-response effect of added NaPP on iron bioavailability from local meals prepared with intrinsically labeled FePP-fortified bouillon cubes in young Nigerian women using iron stable isotope techniques.

METHODS

In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial, women (n = 24; aged 18-40 y; mean BMI 20.5 kg/m2) consumed a Nigerian breakfast and lunch for 5 d prepared with bouillon cubes containing 2.5 mg 57Fe (as FePP) and 3 different molar ratios of NaPP: 57Fe (0:1, 3:1, and 6:1). Iron bioavailability was assessed by measuring 57Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 16 d after each 5 d NaPP: 57Fe feeding period. Data were analyzed using a linear regression model of log iron absorption on NaPP ratio, with body weight and baseline body iron stores as covariates and subject as a random intercept.

RESULTS

Of the women included, 46% were anemic and 26% were iron deficient. Iron bioavailability was 10.8, 9.8, and 11.0% for the 0:1, 3:1, and 6:1 NaPP:57Fe treatments, respectively. There was no dose-response effect of an increasing NaPP:57Fe ratio (β ± SE: 0.003 ± 0.028, P = 0.45).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the addition of NaPP did not increase iron bioavailability from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes. However, iron bioavailability from the Nigerian meals prepared with FePP-fortified bouillon cubes was higher than expected. These results are encouraging for the potential of bouillon cubes as a fortification vehicle. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of FePP-fortified bouillon cubes on improving iron status in low-income populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02815449.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, South Holland, The Netherlands.Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, South Holland, The Netherlands.Unilever R&D, Bedford, United Kingdom.Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, South Holland, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31004134

Citation

Eilander, Ans, et al. "High Bioavailability From Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals Is Not Increased By Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 149, no. 5, 2019, pp. 723-729.
Eilander A, Funke OM, Moretti D, et al. High Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals is Not Increased by Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women. J Nutr. 2019;149(5):723-729.
Eilander, A., Funke, O. M., Moretti, D., Zimmermann, M. B., Owojuyigbe, T. O., Blonk, C., Murray, P., & Duchateau, G. S. (2019). High Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals is Not Increased by Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 149(5), 723-729. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz003
Eilander A, et al. High Bioavailability From Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals Is Not Increased By Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women. J Nutr. 2019 05 1;149(5):723-729. PubMed PMID: 31004134.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals is Not Increased by Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women. AU - Eilander,Ans, AU - Funke,Olumakaiye M, AU - Moretti,Diego, AU - Zimmermann,Michael B, AU - Owojuyigbe,Temilola O, AU - Blonk,Cor, AU - Murray,Peter, AU - Duchateau,Guus S, PY - 2018/11/09/received PY - 2018/12/03/revised PY - 2019/01/08/accepted PY - 2019/4/21/pubmed PY - 2020/4/3/medline PY - 2019/4/21/entrez KW - Nigeria KW - bioavailability KW - bouillon cubes KW - iron KW - isotopes KW - women SP - 723 EP - 729 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 149 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: It is challenging to find an iron compound that combines good bioavailability with minimal sensory changes when added to seasonings or condiments. Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is currently used to fortify bouillon cubes, but its bioavailability is generally low. Previously, the addition of a stabilizer, sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP), improved iron bioavailability from a bouillon drink. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether there is a dose-response effect of added NaPP on iron bioavailability from local meals prepared with intrinsically labeled FePP-fortified bouillon cubes in young Nigerian women using iron stable isotope techniques. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial, women (n = 24; aged 18-40 y; mean BMI 20.5 kg/m2) consumed a Nigerian breakfast and lunch for 5 d prepared with bouillon cubes containing 2.5 mg 57Fe (as FePP) and 3 different molar ratios of NaPP: 57Fe (0:1, 3:1, and 6:1). Iron bioavailability was assessed by measuring 57Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 16 d after each 5 d NaPP: 57Fe feeding period. Data were analyzed using a linear regression model of log iron absorption on NaPP ratio, with body weight and baseline body iron stores as covariates and subject as a random intercept. RESULTS: Of the women included, 46% were anemic and 26% were iron deficient. Iron bioavailability was 10.8, 9.8, and 11.0% for the 0:1, 3:1, and 6:1 NaPP:57Fe treatments, respectively. There was no dose-response effect of an increasing NaPP:57Fe ratio (β ± SE: 0.003 ± 0.028, P = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the addition of NaPP did not increase iron bioavailability from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes. However, iron bioavailability from the Nigerian meals prepared with FePP-fortified bouillon cubes was higher than expected. These results are encouraging for the potential of bouillon cubes as a fortification vehicle. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of FePP-fortified bouillon cubes on improving iron status in low-income populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02815449. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31004134/High_Bioavailability_from_Ferric_Pyrophosphate_Fortified_Bouillon_Cubes_in_Meals_is_Not_Increased_by_Sodium_Pyrophosphate:_a_Stable_Iron_Isotope_Study_in_Young_Nigerian_Women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/nxz003 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -