Dual actions of norathyriol as a new candidate hypouricaemic agent: uricosuric effects and xanthine oxidase inhibition.Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Jun 15; 853:371-380.EJ
Hyperuricaemia, which results from the overproduction and underexcretion of uric acid, has been linked with chronic renal dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, available clinical drugs cannot simultaneously target the production and excretion of uric acid. Norathyriol, a natural xanthone, was expected to have the dual actions. We previously reported that norathyriol possessed potent anti-hyperuricaemic activity related to the inhibition of uric acid production. Here, we investigated the uricosuric actions in hyperuricaemic animals and explored the possible molecular mechanisms associated with renal urate transporters and xanthine oxidase (XO). The results showed that norathyriol (0.5-4.0 mg/kg) dose- and time-dependently decreased serum urate levels in uric acid-induced hyperuricaemic mice and markedly increased the fractional excretion of urate in oxonate-induced hyperuricaemic rats, demonstrating a promotion of urate excretion in the kidney. Further evidence showed that norathyriol markedly increased renal mRNA and protein expression of the secretory organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in hyperuricaemic mice and strengthened its transport function in vitro. Moreover, norathyriol also upregulated the mRNA expression of the secretory transporters OAT3, ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 and multidrug resistance protein 4, but not their protein expression. Changes in the expression of the reabsorptive transporters were not observed. This is the first report that norathyriol has uricosuric effects by targeting OAT1. Moreover, norathyriol significantly inhibited XO activity in an uncompetitive manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that norathyriol has the potential to be developed as a new anti-hyperuricaemic agent with dual actions that activate OAT1 and inhibit XO activity.