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Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study).
Nutrients. 2019 Apr 12; 11(4)N

Abstract

Due to the lack of current, large-scale studies examining their dietary intake and health, there are concerns about vegetarian (VG) and vegan (VN) diets in childhood. Therefore, the Vegetarian and Vegan Children Study (VeChi Diet Study) examined the energy and macronutrient intake as well as the anthropometrics of 430 VG, VN, and omnivorous (OM) children (1⁻3 years) in Germany. A 3-day weighed dietary record assessed dietary intake, and an online questionnaire assessed lifestyle, body weight (BW), and height. Average dietary intakes and anthropometrics were compared between groups using ANCOVA. There were no significant differences in energy intake or density and anthropometrics between the study groups. OM children had the highest adjusted median intakes of protein (OM: 2.7, VG: 2.3, VN: 2.4 g/kg BW, p < 0.0001), fat (OM: 36.0, VG: 33.5, VN: 31.2%E, p < 0.0001), and added sugars (OM: 5.3, VG: 4.5, VN: 3.8%E, p = 0.002), whereas VN children had the highest adjusted intakes of carbohydrates (OM: 50.1, VG: 54.1, VN: 56.2%E, p < 0.0001) and fiber (OM: 12.2, VG: 16.5, VN: 21.8 g/1,000 kcal, p < 0.0001). Therefore, a VG and VN diet in early childhood can provide the same amount of energy and macronutrients, leading to a normal growth in comparison to OM children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), University of Applied Sciences, 33602 Bielefeld, Germany. weder@fh-mittelstand.de. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Interdisciplinary Research Center, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany. weder@fh-mittelstand.de.Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), University of Applied Sciences, 33602 Bielefeld, Germany. morwenna.hoffmann@fh-mittelstand.de.Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Interdisciplinary Research Center, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany. katja.becker@uni-giessen.de.IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study, University of Bonn, 44225 Dortmund, Germany. alexy@uni-bonn.de.Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), University of Applied Sciences, 33602 Bielefeld, Germany. keller@fh-mittelstand.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31013738

Citation

Weder, Stine, et al. "Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study)." Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 4, 2019.
Weder S, Hoffmann M, Becker K, et al. Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). Nutrients. 2019;11(4).
Weder, S., Hoffmann, M., Becker, K., Alexy, U., & Keller, M. (2019). Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). Nutrients, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040832
Weder S, et al. Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). Nutrients. 2019 Apr 12;11(4) PubMed PMID: 31013738.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). AU - Weder,Stine, AU - Hoffmann,Morwenna, AU - Becker,Katja, AU - Alexy,Ute, AU - Keller,Markus, Y1 - 2019/04/12/ PY - 2019/03/22/received PY - 2019/04/08/revised PY - 2019/04/10/accepted PY - 2019/4/25/entrez PY - 2019/4/25/pubmed PY - 2019/11/5/medline KW - WHO Child Growth Standards KW - body height KW - body weight KW - children KW - energy KW - macronutrients KW - nutrient intake KW - vegan KW - vegetarian JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 11 IS - 4 N2 - Due to the lack of current, large-scale studies examining their dietary intake and health, there are concerns about vegetarian (VG) and vegan (VN) diets in childhood. Therefore, the Vegetarian and Vegan Children Study (VeChi Diet Study) examined the energy and macronutrient intake as well as the anthropometrics of 430 VG, VN, and omnivorous (OM) children (1⁻3 years) in Germany. A 3-day weighed dietary record assessed dietary intake, and an online questionnaire assessed lifestyle, body weight (BW), and height. Average dietary intakes and anthropometrics were compared between groups using ANCOVA. There were no significant differences in energy intake or density and anthropometrics between the study groups. OM children had the highest adjusted median intakes of protein (OM: 2.7, VG: 2.3, VN: 2.4 g/kg BW, p < 0.0001), fat (OM: 36.0, VG: 33.5, VN: 31.2%E, p < 0.0001), and added sugars (OM: 5.3, VG: 4.5, VN: 3.8%E, p = 0.002), whereas VN children had the highest adjusted intakes of carbohydrates (OM: 50.1, VG: 54.1, VN: 56.2%E, p < 0.0001) and fiber (OM: 12.2, VG: 16.5, VN: 21.8 g/1,000 kcal, p < 0.0001). Therefore, a VG and VN diet in early childhood can provide the same amount of energy and macronutrients, leading to a normal growth in comparison to OM children. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31013738/Energy_Macronutrient_Intake_and_Anthropometrics_of_Vegetarian_Vegan_and_Omnivorous_Children__1⁻3_Years__in_Germany__VeChi_Diet_Study__ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu11040832 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -