A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions.Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 13; 20(8)IJ
Cannabis and cannabinoids offer significant therapeutic benefits for a wide scope of pathological conditions. Among them, the clinical issues rooted in inflammation stand out, nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms are not yet plainly understood. Circumstantial evidence points to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) as targets for the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the effects of CM5, a novel Cannabis sativa L. extract standardized in 5% cannabidiol (CBD), on human PMN functions, including cell migration, oxidative metabolism and production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then sought to investigate whether such effects could be ascribed to its content in CBD. Cell migration was assessed by the Boyden chamber assay, oxidative metabolism by means of spectrofluorimetric measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and TNF-α was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results show that both CM5 and CBD inhibit PMN migration, ROS and TNF-α production, indicating that CBD may be the main item responsible for the effects of CM5. CM5 is however more potent than CBD on cell migration and TNF-α production, and less effective on ROS production, suggesting that beyond CBD, other components of the cannabis plant may contribute to the biological effects of the extract. As a whole, such results support the use of cannabis standardized extract and CBD to stem inflammation; however, they also warrant in-depth investigation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms to better exploit their therapeutic potential.