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Mentoring stages: A study of undergraduate mentoring in palliative medicine in Singapore.
PLoS One. 2019; 14(4):e0214643.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mentoring nurtures a mentee's personal and professional development. Yet conflation of mentoring approaches and a failure to contend with mentoring's nature makes it difficult to study mentoring processes and relationships. This study aims to understand of mentee experiences in the Palliative Medicine Initiative (PMI). The PMI uses a consistent mentoring approach amongst a homogeneous mentee population offers a unique opportunity to circumnavigate conflation of practices and the limitations posed by mentoring's nature. The data will advance understanding of mentoring processes.

METHODS

Sixteen mentees discussed their PMI experiences in individual face-to-face audio-recorded interviews. The two themes identified from thematic analysis of interview transcripts were the stages of mentoring and communication.

RESULTS

The 6 stages of mentoring are the 'pre-mentoring stage', 'initial research meetings', 'data gathering', 'review of initial findings, 'manuscript preparation" and 'reflections'. These subthemes sketch the progression of mentees from being dependent on the mentor for support and guidance, to an independent learner with capacity and willingness to mentor others. Each subtheme is described as stages in the mentoring process (mentoring stages) given their association with a specific phase of the research process. Mentoring processes also pivot on effective communication which are influenced by the mentor's characteristics and the nature of mentoring interactions.

CONCLUSION

Mentoring relationships evolve in stages to ensure particular competencies are met before mentees progress to the next part of their mentoring process. Progress is dependent upon effective communication and support from the mentor and appropriate and timely adaptations to the mentoring approach to meet the mentee's needs and goals. Adaptations to the mentoring structure are informed by effective and holistic evaluation of the mentoring process and the mentor's and mentee's abilities, goals and situations. These findings underline the need to review and redesign the way assessments of the mentoring process are constructed and how mentoring programs are structured.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Academic Palliative & End of Life Care Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Division of Palliative and Supportive Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Centre of Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Duke- NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.National University Hospital Singapore, Department of Family Medicine, Singapore, Singapore.Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Academic Palliative & End of Life Care Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31017941

Citation

Krishna, Lalit, et al. "Mentoring Stages: a Study of Undergraduate Mentoring in Palliative Medicine in Singapore." PloS One, vol. 14, no. 4, 2019, pp. e0214643.
Krishna L, Toh YP, Mason S, et al. Mentoring stages: A study of undergraduate mentoring in palliative medicine in Singapore. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4):e0214643.
Krishna, L., Toh, Y. P., Mason, S., & Kanesvaran, R. (2019). Mentoring stages: A study of undergraduate mentoring in palliative medicine in Singapore. PloS One, 14(4), e0214643. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214643
Krishna L, et al. Mentoring Stages: a Study of Undergraduate Mentoring in Palliative Medicine in Singapore. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4):e0214643. PubMed PMID: 31017941.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mentoring stages: A study of undergraduate mentoring in palliative medicine in Singapore. AU - Krishna,Lalit, AU - Toh,Ying Pin, AU - Mason,Stephen, AU - Kanesvaran,Ravindran, Y1 - 2019/04/24/ PY - 2018/06/05/received PY - 2019/03/18/accepted PY - 2019/4/25/entrez PY - 2019/4/25/pubmed PY - 2019/12/24/medline SP - e0214643 EP - e0214643 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mentoring nurtures a mentee's personal and professional development. Yet conflation of mentoring approaches and a failure to contend with mentoring's nature makes it difficult to study mentoring processes and relationships. This study aims to understand of mentee experiences in the Palliative Medicine Initiative (PMI). The PMI uses a consistent mentoring approach amongst a homogeneous mentee population offers a unique opportunity to circumnavigate conflation of practices and the limitations posed by mentoring's nature. The data will advance understanding of mentoring processes. METHODS: Sixteen mentees discussed their PMI experiences in individual face-to-face audio-recorded interviews. The two themes identified from thematic analysis of interview transcripts were the stages of mentoring and communication. RESULTS: The 6 stages of mentoring are the 'pre-mentoring stage', 'initial research meetings', 'data gathering', 'review of initial findings, 'manuscript preparation" and 'reflections'. These subthemes sketch the progression of mentees from being dependent on the mentor for support and guidance, to an independent learner with capacity and willingness to mentor others. Each subtheme is described as stages in the mentoring process (mentoring stages) given their association with a specific phase of the research process. Mentoring processes also pivot on effective communication which are influenced by the mentor's characteristics and the nature of mentoring interactions. CONCLUSION: Mentoring relationships evolve in stages to ensure particular competencies are met before mentees progress to the next part of their mentoring process. Progress is dependent upon effective communication and support from the mentor and appropriate and timely adaptations to the mentoring approach to meet the mentee's needs and goals. Adaptations to the mentoring structure are informed by effective and holistic evaluation of the mentoring process and the mentor's and mentee's abilities, goals and situations. These findings underline the need to review and redesign the way assessments of the mentoring process are constructed and how mentoring programs are structured. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31017941/Mentoring_stages:_A_study_of_undergraduate_mentoring_in_palliative_medicine_in_Singapore_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214643 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -