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Association of meal and snack patterns with micronutrient intakes among Greek children and adolescents: data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey.
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019 08; 32(4):455-467.JH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The present study aimed to examine how different meal and snack patterns are associated with micronutrient intakes and diet quality among a nationally representative sample of Greek children and adolescents aged 1-19 years from the cross-sectional Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (n = 598).

METHODS

Meal and snack patterns were derived using 24-h dietary recalls. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was used as an overall measure of diet quality. Multiple linear regression adjusted for covariates was conducted to examine associations between eating patterns, nutrient intakes and MAR.

RESULTS

Four most frequently reported eating schemes were identified including breakfast (B), lunch (L), dinner (D) and two snacks (S) (20.9%); B, L, D and 1S (16.2%); B, L, D and 3S (10.8%); and B, L and D (7.9%). Based on these schemes, the daily consumption of all main meals from the majority of the sample was highlighted. In children and adolescents aged 4-19 years, increasing snack frequency was positively associated with intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, magnesium, copper and selenium. An inverse association was recorded for vitamin E, vitamin B6 , calcium and iron. Among children aged 1-3 years, only niacin and copper were significantly associated with number of snacks, with the group of 'B-L-D-2S' presenting the highest intake. As for the overall diet quality, among all participants, there was no significant association of MAR with the type of meal and snack pattern, and thus the snack frequency.

CONCLUSIONS

Snacking behaviour is a common practice among children and adolescents. Modifying current snack foods with nutrient-rich choices could lead to an improvement of their diet's nutritional quality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Department of Cardiology, 'Elpis' General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece.Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31020750

Citation

Mitsopoulou, A-V, et al. "Association of Meal and Snack Patterns With Micronutrient Intakes Among Greek Children and Adolescents: Data From the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, vol. 32, no. 4, 2019, pp. 455-467.
Mitsopoulou AV, Magriplis E, Dimakopoulos I, et al. Association of meal and snack patterns with micronutrient intakes among Greek children and adolescents: data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019;32(4):455-467.
Mitsopoulou, A. V., Magriplis, E., Dimakopoulos, I., Karageorgou, D., Bakogianni, I., Micha, R., Michas, G., Chourdakis, M., Ntouroupi, T., Tsaniklidou, S. M., Argyri, K., Panagiotakos, D. B., & Zampelas, A. (2019). Association of meal and snack patterns with micronutrient intakes among Greek children and adolescents: data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, 32(4), 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12639
Mitsopoulou AV, et al. Association of Meal and Snack Patterns With Micronutrient Intakes Among Greek Children and Adolescents: Data From the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019;32(4):455-467. PubMed PMID: 31020750.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association of meal and snack patterns with micronutrient intakes among Greek children and adolescents: data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey. AU - Mitsopoulou,A-V, AU - Magriplis,E, AU - Dimakopoulos,I, AU - Karageorgou,D, AU - Bakogianni,I, AU - Micha,R, AU - Michas,G, AU - Chourdakis,M, AU - Ntouroupi,T, AU - Tsaniklidou,S-M, AU - Argyri,K, AU - Panagiotakos,D B, AU - Zampelas,A, AU - ,, AU - ,, Y1 - 2019/04/24/ PY - 2019/4/26/pubmed PY - 2020/9/12/medline PY - 2019/4/26/entrez KW - adolescents KW - children KW - eating occasion frequency KW - meals KW - nutrients KW - snacks SP - 455 EP - 467 JF - Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association JO - J Hum Nutr Diet VL - 32 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine how different meal and snack patterns are associated with micronutrient intakes and diet quality among a nationally representative sample of Greek children and adolescents aged 1-19 years from the cross-sectional Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (n = 598). METHODS: Meal and snack patterns were derived using 24-h dietary recalls. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was used as an overall measure of diet quality. Multiple linear regression adjusted for covariates was conducted to examine associations between eating patterns, nutrient intakes and MAR. RESULTS: Four most frequently reported eating schemes were identified including breakfast (B), lunch (L), dinner (D) and two snacks (S) (20.9%); B, L, D and 1S (16.2%); B, L, D and 3S (10.8%); and B, L and D (7.9%). Based on these schemes, the daily consumption of all main meals from the majority of the sample was highlighted. In children and adolescents aged 4-19 years, increasing snack frequency was positively associated with intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, magnesium, copper and selenium. An inverse association was recorded for vitamin E, vitamin B6 , calcium and iron. Among children aged 1-3 years, only niacin and copper were significantly associated with number of snacks, with the group of 'B-L-D-2S' presenting the highest intake. As for the overall diet quality, among all participants, there was no significant association of MAR with the type of meal and snack pattern, and thus the snack frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Snacking behaviour is a common practice among children and adolescents. Modifying current snack foods with nutrient-rich choices could lead to an improvement of their diet's nutritional quality. SN - 1365-277X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31020750/Association_of_meal_and_snack_patterns_with_micronutrient_intakes_among_Greek_children_and_adolescents:_data_from_the_Hellenic_National_Nutrition_and_Health_Survey_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12639 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -