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n-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship with Plasma Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014.
Lipids. 2019 04; 54(4):221-230.L

Abstract

The long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a crucial role in health, but previous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) analyses have shown that EPA and DHA intake in the United States is far below recommendations (~250-500 mg/day EPA + DHA). Less is known about docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the metabolic intermediate of EPA and DHA; however, evidence suggests DPA may be an important contributor to long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and impart unique benefits. We used NHANES 2003-2014 data (n = 45,347) to assess DPA intake and plasma concentrations, as well as the relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of EPA, DPA, and DHA. Mean DPA intake was 22.3 ± 0.8 mg/day from 2013 to 2014, and increased significantly over time (p < 0.001), with the lowest values from 2003 to 2004 (16.2 ± 1.2 mg/day). DPA intake was higher in adults (20-55 years) and seniors (55+ years) compared to younger individuals. In regression analyses, DPA intake was a significant predictor of plasma EPA (β = 138.5; p < 0.001) and DHA (β = 318.9; p < 0.001). Plasma DPA was predicted by EPA and DHA intake (β = 13.15; p = 0.001 and β = 7.4; p = 0.002), but not dietary DPA (p = 0.3). This indicates that DPA intake is not a good marker of plasma DPA status (or vice versa), and further research is needed to understand the factors that affect the interconversion of EPA and DPA. These findings have implications for future long-chain n-3 fatty acids dietary recommendations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, 1177E 4th St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd St & Emile St, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, 1177E 4th St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31025717

Citation

Richter, Chesney K., et al. "N-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship With Plasma Long-Chain N-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014." Lipids, vol. 54, no. 4, 2019, pp. 221-230.
Richter CK, Bisselou KS, Nordgren TM, et al. N-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship with Plasma Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014. Lipids. 2019;54(4):221-230.
Richter, C. K., Bisselou, K. S., Nordgren, T. M., Smith, L., Appiah, A. K., Hein, N., Anderson-Berry, A., Kris-Etherton, P., Hanson, C., & Skulas-Ray, A. C. (2019). N-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship with Plasma Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014. Lipids, 54(4), 221-230. https://doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12146
Richter CK, et al. N-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship With Plasma Long-Chain N-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014. Lipids. 2019;54(4):221-230. PubMed PMID: 31025717.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - n-3 Docosapentaenoic Acid Intake and Relationship with Plasma Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014. AU - Richter,Chesney K, AU - Bisselou,Karl Stessy, AU - Nordgren,Tara M, AU - Smith,Lynette, AU - Appiah,Adams Kusi, AU - Hein,Nicholas, AU - Anderson-Berry,Ann, AU - Kris-Etherton,Penny, AU - Hanson,Corrine, AU - Skulas-Ray,Ann C, PY - 2019/02/10/received PY - 2019/03/23/revised PY - 2019/03/26/accepted PY - 2020/04/01/pmc-release PY - 2019/4/27/entrez PY - 2019/4/27/pubmed PY - 2019/9/3/medline KW - Docosahexaenoic acid KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid KW - Fish oil supplements KW - Oily fish KW - Omega-3 fatty acids SP - 221 EP - 230 JF - Lipids JO - Lipids VL - 54 IS - 4 N2 - The long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a crucial role in health, but previous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) analyses have shown that EPA and DHA intake in the United States is far below recommendations (~250-500 mg/day EPA + DHA). Less is known about docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the metabolic intermediate of EPA and DHA; however, evidence suggests DPA may be an important contributor to long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and impart unique benefits. We used NHANES 2003-2014 data (n = 45,347) to assess DPA intake and plasma concentrations, as well as the relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of EPA, DPA, and DHA. Mean DPA intake was 22.3 ± 0.8 mg/day from 2013 to 2014, and increased significantly over time (p < 0.001), with the lowest values from 2003 to 2004 (16.2 ± 1.2 mg/day). DPA intake was higher in adults (20-55 years) and seniors (55+ years) compared to younger individuals. In regression analyses, DPA intake was a significant predictor of plasma EPA (β = 138.5; p < 0.001) and DHA (β = 318.9; p < 0.001). Plasma DPA was predicted by EPA and DHA intake (β = 13.15; p = 0.001 and β = 7.4; p = 0.002), but not dietary DPA (p = 0.3). This indicates that DPA intake is not a good marker of plasma DPA status (or vice versa), and further research is needed to understand the factors that affect the interconversion of EPA and DPA. These findings have implications for future long-chain n-3 fatty acids dietary recommendations. SN - 1558-9307 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31025717/n_3_Docosapentaenoic_Acid_Intake_and_Relationship_with_Plasma_Long_Chain_n_3_Fatty_Acid_Concentrations_in_the_United_States:_NHANES_2003_2014_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12146 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -