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Transcriptomics and differential gene expression in Whitmania pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting feeding and fasting modes.
Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr; 9(8):4706-4719.EE

Abstract

The medicinal utility of leeches has been demonstrated through decades of use in modern hospital settings, mainly as relievers of venous congestion following flap or digit replantation surgery. In the present study, we sequence and annotate (through BLAST- and Gene Ontology-based approaches) the salivary transcriptome of the nonblood feeding hirudinid Whitmania pigra and assess the differential gene expression of anticoagulation factors (through both quantitative real-time PCR [qRT-PCR] and in silico-based methods) during feeding and fasting conditions. This was done in order to evince the diversity of putative anticoagulation factors, as well as estimate the levels of upregulation of genes immediately after feeding. In total, we found sequences with demonstrated orthology (via both phylogenetic analyses and BLAST-based approaches) to seven different proteins that have previously been linked to anticoagulatory capabilities-eglin C, bdellin, granulin, guamerin, hyaluronidase, destabilase I, and lipocalin. All of these were recovered from leeches both in the fasting and in the feeding conditions, but all show signs of upregulation in the feeding leeches. Interestingly, our RNA-seq effort, coupled with a hypergeometric test, indicated that the differentially expressed genes were disproportionately involved in three main immunological pathways (endocytosis, peroxisome regulation, and lysosome regulation). The results and implications of the finding of anticoagulants in this nonblood feeding leech and the putative upregulation of anticoagulation factors after feeding are briefly discussed in an evolutionary context.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Life Sciences Shaanxi Normal University Xi'an China.College of Life Sciences Shaanxi Normal University Xi'an China.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Toronto Toronto Ontario Canada. Department of Natural History Royal Ontario Museum Toronto Ontario Canada.College of Life Sciences Shaanxi Normal University Xi'an China.School of Computer Science Shaanxi Normal University Xi'an China.College of Life Sciences Shaanxi Normal University Xi'an China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31031937

Citation

Khan, Muhammad Salabat, et al. "Transcriptomics and Differential Gene Expression in Whitmania Pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting Feeding and Fasting Modes." Ecology and Evolution, vol. 9, no. 8, 2019, pp. 4706-4719.
Khan MS, Guan DL, Kvist S, et al. Transcriptomics and differential gene expression in Whitmania pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting feeding and fasting modes. Ecol Evol. 2019;9(8):4706-4719.
Khan, M. S., Guan, D. L., Kvist, S., Ma, L. B., Xie, J. Y., & Xu, S. Q. (2019). Transcriptomics and differential gene expression in Whitmania pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting feeding and fasting modes. Ecology and Evolution, 9(8), 4706-4719. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5074
Khan MS, et al. Transcriptomics and Differential Gene Expression in Whitmania Pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting Feeding and Fasting Modes. Ecol Evol. 2019;9(8):4706-4719. PubMed PMID: 31031937.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transcriptomics and differential gene expression in Whitmania pigra (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida: Hirudinidae): Contrasting feeding and fasting modes. AU - Khan,Muhammad Salabat, AU - Guan,De-Long, AU - Kvist,Sebastian, AU - Ma,Li-Bin, AU - Xie,Juan-Ying, AU - Xu,Sheng-Quan, Y1 - 2019/03/18/ PY - 2019/01/14/received PY - 2019/02/26/revised PY - 2019/02/27/accepted PY - 2019/4/30/entrez PY - 2019/4/30/pubmed PY - 2019/4/30/medline KW - Hirudinea KW - Hirudinidae KW - Whitmania pigra KW - anticoagulants KW - differential gene expression KW - metabolic pathways KW - transcriptomics SP - 4706 EP - 4719 JF - Ecology and evolution JO - Ecol Evol VL - 9 IS - 8 N2 - The medicinal utility of leeches has been demonstrated through decades of use in modern hospital settings, mainly as relievers of venous congestion following flap or digit replantation surgery. In the present study, we sequence and annotate (through BLAST- and Gene Ontology-based approaches) the salivary transcriptome of the nonblood feeding hirudinid Whitmania pigra and assess the differential gene expression of anticoagulation factors (through both quantitative real-time PCR [qRT-PCR] and in silico-based methods) during feeding and fasting conditions. This was done in order to evince the diversity of putative anticoagulation factors, as well as estimate the levels of upregulation of genes immediately after feeding. In total, we found sequences with demonstrated orthology (via both phylogenetic analyses and BLAST-based approaches) to seven different proteins that have previously been linked to anticoagulatory capabilities-eglin C, bdellin, granulin, guamerin, hyaluronidase, destabilase I, and lipocalin. All of these were recovered from leeches both in the fasting and in the feeding conditions, but all show signs of upregulation in the feeding leeches. Interestingly, our RNA-seq effort, coupled with a hypergeometric test, indicated that the differentially expressed genes were disproportionately involved in three main immunological pathways (endocytosis, peroxisome regulation, and lysosome regulation). The results and implications of the finding of anticoagulants in this nonblood feeding leech and the putative upregulation of anticoagulation factors after feeding are briefly discussed in an evolutionary context. SN - 2045-7758 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31031937/Transcriptomics_and_differential_gene_expression_in_Whitmania_pigra__Annelida:_Clitellata:_Hirudinida:_Hirudinidae_:_Contrasting_feeding_and_fasting_modes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5074 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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