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The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises on Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome.
Sports Health. 2019 May/Jun; 11(3):223-237.SH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is sometimes related to excessive hip adduction and internal rotation, as well as knee valgus during weightbearing activities in females. Research on injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies has shown the positive effects of valgus control instruction (VCI) exercise programs in training.

HYPOTHESIS

A VCI program would result in a positive change in pain, eccentric hip muscle torque, and performance in females with PFPS.

STUDY DESIGN

Controlled laboratory study.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

Level 1.

METHODS

Sixty-four amateur female volleyball players from our university (age, 18-25 years) with PFPS and equal years of exercise experience were randomly divided into VCI (n = 32; age, 22.1 ± 5.88 years) and control (n = 32; age, 23.1 ± 6.49 years) groups. Function (single, triple, and crossover hops), strength (hip abductor and external rotators), pain (visual analog scale), and knee valgus angle (single-leg squat) were assessed at baseline and after intervention.

RESULTS

There was a significant difference before and after implementation of the VCI program with regard to pain (49.18% ↓, P = 0.000), single-leg hop test (24.62% ↑, P = 0.000), triple-hop test (23.75% ↑, P = 0.000), crossover hop test (12.88% ↑, P = 0.000), single-leg 6-m timed hop test (7.43% ↓, P = 0.000), knee dynamic valgus angle (59.48% ↓, P = 0.000), peak abductor to adductor eccentric torque ratio (14.60% ↑, P = 0.000), peak external (59.73% ↑, P = 0.023) and internal rotator (15.45% ↑, P = 0.028) eccentric torques, and the ratio of peak external to internal rotator eccentric torque (40.90% ↑, P = 0.000) (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

PFPS rehabilitation and prevention programs should consider VCI exercises to decrease pain, improve strength, and increase athletes' functional performance.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study investigated the effect of VCI exercises on knee valgus angle, pain, and functionality of individuals with PFPS. The VCI program improves performance, knee dynamic valgus angle, and strength in participants with PFPS. A controlled and optimal knee valgus angle during a functional task is the most important factor for injury prevention specialists. VCI training can be used as a supplemental method to prevent and treat lower extremity injury in patients with PFPS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Republic of Iran.Department of Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Republic of Iran.Department of Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Republic of Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31034336

Citation

Emamvirdi, Mahsa, et al. "The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises On Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome." Sports Health, vol. 11, no. 3, 2019, pp. 223-237.
Emamvirdi M, Letafatkar A, Khaleghi Tazji M. The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises on Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Sports Health. 2019;11(3):223-237.
Emamvirdi, M., Letafatkar, A., & Khaleghi Tazji, M. (2019). The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises on Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Sports Health, 11(3), 223-237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738119837622
Emamvirdi M, Letafatkar A, Khaleghi Tazji M. The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises On Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Sports Health. 2019;11(3):223-237. PubMed PMID: 31034336.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of Valgus Control Instruction Exercises on Pain, Strength, and Functionality in Active Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. AU - Emamvirdi,Mahsa, AU - Letafatkar,Amir, AU - Khaleghi Tazji,Mehdi, Y1 - 2019/04/29/ PY - 2020/04/29/pmc-release PY - 2019/4/30/pubmed PY - 2019/6/6/medline PY - 2019/4/30/entrez KW - female athletes KW - instruction KW - patellofemoral pain syndrome KW - performance KW - strength SP - 223 EP - 237 JF - Sports health JO - Sports Health VL - 11 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is sometimes related to excessive hip adduction and internal rotation, as well as knee valgus during weightbearing activities in females. Research on injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies has shown the positive effects of valgus control instruction (VCI) exercise programs in training. HYPOTHESIS: A VCI program would result in a positive change in pain, eccentric hip muscle torque, and performance in females with PFPS. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1. METHODS: Sixty-four amateur female volleyball players from our university (age, 18-25 years) with PFPS and equal years of exercise experience were randomly divided into VCI (n = 32; age, 22.1 ± 5.88 years) and control (n = 32; age, 23.1 ± 6.49 years) groups. Function (single, triple, and crossover hops), strength (hip abductor and external rotators), pain (visual analog scale), and knee valgus angle (single-leg squat) were assessed at baseline and after intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant difference before and after implementation of the VCI program with regard to pain (49.18% ↓, P = 0.000), single-leg hop test (24.62% ↑, P = 0.000), triple-hop test (23.75% ↑, P = 0.000), crossover hop test (12.88% ↑, P = 0.000), single-leg 6-m timed hop test (7.43% ↓, P = 0.000), knee dynamic valgus angle (59.48% ↓, P = 0.000), peak abductor to adductor eccentric torque ratio (14.60% ↑, P = 0.000), peak external (59.73% ↑, P = 0.023) and internal rotator (15.45% ↑, P = 0.028) eccentric torques, and the ratio of peak external to internal rotator eccentric torque (40.90% ↑, P = 0.000) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PFPS rehabilitation and prevention programs should consider VCI exercises to decrease pain, improve strength, and increase athletes' functional performance. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study investigated the effect of VCI exercises on knee valgus angle, pain, and functionality of individuals with PFPS. The VCI program improves performance, knee dynamic valgus angle, and strength in participants with PFPS. A controlled and optimal knee valgus angle during a functional task is the most important factor for injury prevention specialists. VCI training can be used as a supplemental method to prevent and treat lower extremity injury in patients with PFPS. SN - 1941-0921 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31034336/The_Effect_of_Valgus_Control_Instruction_Exercises_on_Pain_Strength_and_Functionality_in_Active_Females_With_Patellofemoral_Pain_Syndrome_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1941738119837622?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -