Correlation Analysis between Foveal Avascular Zone and Peripheral Ischemic Index in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Pilot Study.Ophthalmol Retina. 2018 01; 2(1):46-52.OR
To investigate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) by OCT angiography (OCT-A) in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy and its correlation with peripheral retinal ischemic index.
Observational, cross-sectional study, prospectively designed.
Consecutive patients with treatment-naïve diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited between October 2015 and January 2017.
All patients underwent a comprehensive ocular examination including OCT, OCT-A, ultra-widefield (UWF) color fundus images, and UWF fluorescein angiography.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Variables analyzed included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) expressed in logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR); diabetic retinopathy grading; FAZ area at full-thickness (internal limiting membrane to Bruch's membrane) OCT-A angiogram; superficial capillary plexus; deep capillary plexus; ischemic index; and central macular thickness (CMT).
Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients (11 male, mean age 54.9±15.8 years) were included. Mean FAZ areas at full thickness, superficial plexus, and deep plexus were 0.331±0.137 mm2, 0.340±0.140 mm2, and 1.028±0.447 mm2, respectively. Mean ischemic index was 13.6% (range, 0%-50.2%). A significant correlation was found between ischemic index and FAZ area at both full-thickness (r = 0.60, P = 0.0035) and superficial (r = 0.68, P = 0.0005) layers. Disease severity correlated to ischemic index (r = 0.49, P = 0.0204), and FAZ area at full-thickness (r = 0.53, P = 0.0108) and superficial (r = 0.47, P = 0.0292) plexuses. No significant correlation between ischemic index and FAZ at deep plexus was found. BCVA correlated only to CMT (r = 0.66, P = 0.0008).
The association between peripheral and macular perfusion found in this study supports the hypothesis that both conditions share a common pathogenic mechanism that leads to capillary nonperfusion.