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Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants with Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 May 03; 68(17):388-395.MM

Abstract

In 2016, a total of 63,632 persons died from drug overdoses in the United States (1). Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine, psychostimulants with abuse potential (psychostimulants), or both substances combined increased 42.4% from 12,122 in 2015 to 17,258 in 2016.* Psychostimulants with abuse potential include drugs such as methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and caffeine. From 2015 to 2016, cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates increased 52.4% and 33.3%, respectively (1). A total of 70,237 persons died from drug overdoses in the United States in 2017; approximately two thirds of these deaths involved an opioid (2). CDC analyzed 2016-2017 changes in age-adjusted death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants by demographic characteristics, urbanization levels, U.S. Census region, 34 states, and the District of Columbia (DC). CDC also examined trends in age-adjusted cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates from 2003 to 2017 overall, as well as with and without co-involvement of opioids. Among all 2017 drug overdose deaths, 13,942 (19.8%) involved cocaine, and 10,333 (14.7%) involved psychostimulants. Death rates increased from 2016 to 2017 for both drug categories across demographic characteristics, urbanization levels, Census regions, and states. In 2017, opioids were involved in 72.7% and 50.4% of cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved overdoses, respectively, and the data suggest that increases in cocaine-involved overdose deaths from 2012 to 2017 were driven primarily by synthetic opioids. Conversely, increases in psychostimulant-involved deaths from 2010 to 2017 occurred largely independent of opioids, with increased co-involvement of synthetic opioids in recent years. Provisional data from 2018 indicate that deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants are continuing to increase.† Increases in stimulant-involved deaths are part of a growing polysubstance landscape. Increased surveillance and evidence-based multisectoral prevention and response strategies are needed to address deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants and opioids. Enhancing linkage to care, building state and local capacity, and public health/public safety collaborations are critical components of prevention efforts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31048676

Citation

Kariisa, Mbabazi, et al. "Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants With Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017." MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 68, no. 17, 2019, pp. 388-395.
Kariisa M, Scholl L, Wilson N, et al. Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants with Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(17):388-395.
Kariisa, M., Scholl, L., Wilson, N., Seth, P., & Hoots, B. (2019). Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants with Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(17), 388-395. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6817a3
Kariisa M, et al. Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants With Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 May 3;68(17):388-395. PubMed PMID: 31048676.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants with Abuse Potential - United States, 2003-2017. AU - Kariisa,Mbabazi, AU - Scholl,Lawrence, AU - Wilson,Nana, AU - Seth,Puja, AU - Hoots,Brooke, Y1 - 2019/05/03/ PY - 2019/5/4/entrez PY - 2019/5/3/pubmed PY - 2019/5/7/medline SP - 388 EP - 395 JF - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report JO - MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. VL - 68 IS - 17 N2 - In 2016, a total of 63,632 persons died from drug overdoses in the United States (1). Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine, psychostimulants with abuse potential (psychostimulants), or both substances combined increased 42.4% from 12,122 in 2015 to 17,258 in 2016.* Psychostimulants with abuse potential include drugs such as methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and caffeine. From 2015 to 2016, cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates increased 52.4% and 33.3%, respectively (1). A total of 70,237 persons died from drug overdoses in the United States in 2017; approximately two thirds of these deaths involved an opioid (2). CDC analyzed 2016-2017 changes in age-adjusted death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants by demographic characteristics, urbanization levels, U.S. Census region, 34 states, and the District of Columbia (DC). CDC also examined trends in age-adjusted cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates from 2003 to 2017 overall, as well as with and without co-involvement of opioids. Among all 2017 drug overdose deaths, 13,942 (19.8%) involved cocaine, and 10,333 (14.7%) involved psychostimulants. Death rates increased from 2016 to 2017 for both drug categories across demographic characteristics, urbanization levels, Census regions, and states. In 2017, opioids were involved in 72.7% and 50.4% of cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved overdoses, respectively, and the data suggest that increases in cocaine-involved overdose deaths from 2012 to 2017 were driven primarily by synthetic opioids. Conversely, increases in psychostimulant-involved deaths from 2010 to 2017 occurred largely independent of opioids, with increased co-involvement of synthetic opioids in recent years. Provisional data from 2018 indicate that deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants are continuing to increase.† Increases in stimulant-involved deaths are part of a growing polysubstance landscape. Increased surveillance and evidence-based multisectoral prevention and response strategies are needed to address deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants and opioids. Enhancing linkage to care, building state and local capacity, and public health/public safety collaborations are critical components of prevention efforts. SN - 1545-861X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31048676/Drug_Overdose_Deaths_Involving_Cocaine_and_Psychostimulants_with_Abuse_Potential___United_States_2003_2017_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6817a3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -