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Acute toxicity and risk evaluation of the CSO disinfectants performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide and their by-products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 10; 677:1-8.ST

Abstract

The ecotoxicological evaluation of combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfectants, with their degradation products, is important for ensuring safe use. For this form of toxicity, data for organisms representing different trophic levels are needed. We studied the toxicity of the alternative disinfectants peracetic acid (PAA), performic acid (PFA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their degradation products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-) on Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. ClO2 was more toxic to D. magna (EC50 < 0.09 mg/L) and PFA was most toxic to V. fischeri (EC50 0.24 mg/L). EC50 of PFA, PAA, ClO2, H2O2 and ClO2- on D. magna were 0.85, 0.78, <0.09, 3.46 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. Similarly, EC50 of PFA, PAA, ClO2, H2O2 and ClO2- on V. fischeri were 0.24, 0.42, 1.10, 5.67 and 30.93 mg/L, respectively. For both PFA and ClO2, the degradation in water was faster than for PAA, H2O2 and chlorite. Using these data together with literature values, we derived environmental quality standards. By combining these with typical concentrations of disinfectants used for CSOs, we estimated the dilution required for discharging CSOs after disinfection, which can be used for quick assessment of the environmental feasibility of disinfection systems at specific CSO sites. Minimal dilutions in the receiving water, in the orders of 44, 70 or 138-fold, are needed for ClO2, PFA and PAA, respectively. This highlights PFA as the most widely applicable disinfectant, taking into account both its efficiency and the lower risk of unwanted environmental effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: Henrik@ndersen.net.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31051379

Citation

Chhetri, Ravi Kumar, et al. "Acute Toxicity and Risk Evaluation of the CSO Disinfectants Performic Acid, Peracetic Acid, Chlorine Dioxide and Their By-products Hydrogen Peroxide and Chlorite." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 677, 2019, pp. 1-8.
Chhetri RK, Baun A, Andersen HR. Acute toxicity and risk evaluation of the CSO disinfectants performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide and their by-products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite. Sci Total Environ. 2019;677:1-8.
Chhetri, R. K., Baun, A., & Andersen, H. R. (2019). Acute toxicity and risk evaluation of the CSO disinfectants performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide and their by-products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite. The Science of the Total Environment, 677, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.350
Chhetri RK, Baun A, Andersen HR. Acute Toxicity and Risk Evaluation of the CSO Disinfectants Performic Acid, Peracetic Acid, Chlorine Dioxide and Their By-products Hydrogen Peroxide and Chlorite. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 10;677:1-8. PubMed PMID: 31051379.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute toxicity and risk evaluation of the CSO disinfectants performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide and their by-products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite. AU - Chhetri,Ravi Kumar, AU - Baun,Anders, AU - Andersen,Henrik Rasmus, Y1 - 2019/04/25/ PY - 2019/02/13/received PY - 2019/04/21/revised PY - 2019/04/24/accepted PY - 2019/5/6/pubmed PY - 2019/7/31/medline PY - 2019/5/4/entrez KW - Combined sewer overflows KW - Daphnia magna KW - Disinfection KW - Ecotoxicity KW - Vibrio fischeri SP - 1 EP - 8 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 677 N2 - The ecotoxicological evaluation of combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfectants, with their degradation products, is important for ensuring safe use. For this form of toxicity, data for organisms representing different trophic levels are needed. We studied the toxicity of the alternative disinfectants peracetic acid (PAA), performic acid (PFA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their degradation products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-) on Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. ClO2 was more toxic to D. magna (EC50 < 0.09 mg/L) and PFA was most toxic to V. fischeri (EC50 0.24 mg/L). EC50 of PFA, PAA, ClO2, H2O2 and ClO2- on D. magna were 0.85, 0.78, <0.09, 3.46 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. Similarly, EC50 of PFA, PAA, ClO2, H2O2 and ClO2- on V. fischeri were 0.24, 0.42, 1.10, 5.67 and 30.93 mg/L, respectively. For both PFA and ClO2, the degradation in water was faster than for PAA, H2O2 and chlorite. Using these data together with literature values, we derived environmental quality standards. By combining these with typical concentrations of disinfectants used for CSOs, we estimated the dilution required for discharging CSOs after disinfection, which can be used for quick assessment of the environmental feasibility of disinfection systems at specific CSO sites. Minimal dilutions in the receiving water, in the orders of 44, 70 or 138-fold, are needed for ClO2, PFA and PAA, respectively. This highlights PFA as the most widely applicable disinfectant, taking into account both its efficiency and the lower risk of unwanted environmental effects. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31051379/Acute_toxicity_and_risk_evaluation_of_the_CSO_disinfectants_performic_acid_peracetic_acid_chlorine_dioxide_and_their_by_products_hydrogen_peroxide_and_chlorite_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -