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Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer.
Front Vet Sci 2019; 6:126FV

Abstract

Supplementary winter feeding of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has become more common in Sweden and Norway due to reindeer pasture fragmentation and climatic conditions. With increased corralling and feeding, often associated with animal stress, increased animal-to-animal contact, and poor hygienic conditions, an altered range of health challenges and diseases may emerge. An outbreak of three different infectious diseases appeared simultaneously in a reindeer herd in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The animals were corralled and fed silage. Several animals in poor body condition stopped eating, with drool and discoloration of the hair coat around the mouth. There were large, black, necrotic lesions on the tongue and gingiva, with holes perforating the chin, indicative of oral necrobacillosis and Fusobacterium spp. infection. Simultaneously, animals were seen with proliferative lesions in the oral mucosa and on the lips, characteristic of contagious ecthyma and Orf virus infection. Furthermore, three animals had keratoconjunctivitis suggesting exposure to cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) and possibly secondary bacterial infections. DNA specific for Fusobacterium necrophorum and ORFV was detected in relevant tissue samples. Antibodies against CvHV2 were detected in 10 of 13 diseased and in four of 11 apparently healthy reindeer. Nine animals were found dead or were euthanized during the outbreak. Health risk factors associated with feeding and corralling may severely impact animal welfare and the herder's economy, and may represent an underestimated cost when replacing natural grazing with feeding.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Arctic Infection Biology, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.Arctic Infection Biology, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. Section for Pathology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Tromsø, Norway.Arctic Infection Biology, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.Section for Pathology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Tromsø, Norway.Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.Kungsängens Gård, Farm and Animal Health, Uppsala, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31058176

Citation

Tryland, Morten, et al. "Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer." Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 6, 2019, p. 126.
Tryland M, Nymo IH, Sánchez Romano J, et al. Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:126.
Tryland, M., Nymo, I. H., Sánchez Romano, J., Mørk, T., Klein, J., & Rockström, U. (2019). Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6, p. 126. doi:10.3389/fvets.2019.00126.
Tryland M, et al. Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:126. PubMed PMID: 31058176.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer. AU - Tryland,Morten, AU - Nymo,Ingebjørg H, AU - Sánchez Romano,Javier, AU - Mørk,Torill, AU - Klein,Jörn, AU - Rockström,Ulrika, Y1 - 2019/04/18/ PY - 2019/01/29/received PY - 2019/04/03/accepted PY - 2019/5/7/entrez PY - 2019/5/7/pubmed PY - 2019/5/7/medline KW - Fusobacterium KW - alphaherpesvirus KW - contagious ecthyma KW - parapoxvirus KW - supplementary feeding KW - zoonosis SP - 126 EP - 126 JF - Frontiers in veterinary science JO - Front Vet Sci VL - 6 N2 - Supplementary winter feeding of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has become more common in Sweden and Norway due to reindeer pasture fragmentation and climatic conditions. With increased corralling and feeding, often associated with animal stress, increased animal-to-animal contact, and poor hygienic conditions, an altered range of health challenges and diseases may emerge. An outbreak of three different infectious diseases appeared simultaneously in a reindeer herd in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The animals were corralled and fed silage. Several animals in poor body condition stopped eating, with drool and discoloration of the hair coat around the mouth. There were large, black, necrotic lesions on the tongue and gingiva, with holes perforating the chin, indicative of oral necrobacillosis and Fusobacterium spp. infection. Simultaneously, animals were seen with proliferative lesions in the oral mucosa and on the lips, characteristic of contagious ecthyma and Orf virus infection. Furthermore, three animals had keratoconjunctivitis suggesting exposure to cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) and possibly secondary bacterial infections. DNA specific for Fusobacterium necrophorum and ORFV was detected in relevant tissue samples. Antibodies against CvHV2 were detected in 10 of 13 diseased and in four of 11 apparently healthy reindeer. Nine animals were found dead or were euthanized during the outbreak. Health risk factors associated with feeding and corralling may severely impact animal welfare and the herder's economy, and may represent an underestimated cost when replacing natural grazing with feeding. SN - 2297-1769 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31058176/Infectious_Disease_Outbreak_Associated_With_Supplementary_Feeding_of_Semi-domesticated_Reindeer L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00126 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -