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Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2019 Apr; 7(4):2325967119835587.OJ

Abstract

Background

The rate of concussions in boys' lacrosse is reported to be the third highest among high school sports in the United States, but no studies have described game-related impacts among boys' lacrosse players.

Purpose

To characterize verified game-related impacts, both overall and those directly to the head, in boys' varsity high school lacrosse.

Study Design

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods

A total of 77 male participants (mean age, 16.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.77 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 73.4 ± 12.2 kg) were instrumented with sensors and were videotaped during 39 games. All verified game-related impacts ≥20g were summarized in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational velocity (PRV). Descriptive statistics and impact rates per player-game (PG) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated.

Results

Overall, 1100 verified game-related impacts were recorded (PLA: median, 33.5g [interquartile range (IQR), 25.7-51.2]; PRV: median, 1135.5 deg/s [IQR, 790.0-1613.8]) during 795 PGs. The rate for all verified game-related impacts was 1.38 impacts per PG (95% CI, 1.30-1.47). Of these, 680 (61.8%) impacts (PLA: median, 35.9g [IQR, 26.7-55.5]; PRV: 1170.5 deg/s [IQR, 803.2-1672.8]) were directly to the head (impact rate, 0.86 impacts/PG [95% CI, 0.79-0.92]). Overall, midfielders (n = 514; 46.7%) sustained the most impacts, followed by attackers (n = 332; 30.2%), defenders (n = 233; 21.2%), and goalies (n = 21; 1.9%). The most common mechanisms for overall impacts and direct head impacts were contact with player (overall: n = 706 [64.2%]; head: n = 397 [58.4%]) and stick (overall: n = 303 [27.5%]; head: n = 239 [35.1%]), followed by ground (overall: n = 73 [6.6%]; head: n = 26 [3.8%]) and ball (overall: n = 15 [1.4%]; head: n = 15 [2.2%]). Direct head impacts were associated with a helmet-to-helmet collision 31.2% of the time, and they were frequently (53.7%) sustained by the players delivering the impact. Nearly half (48.8%) of players delivering contact used their helmets to initiate contact that resulted in a helmet-to-helmet impact. Players receiving a head impact from player contact were most often unprepared (75.9%) for the collision.

Conclusion

The helmet is commonly used to initiate contact in boys' high school lacrosse, often targeting defenseless opponents. Interventions to reduce head impacts should address rules and coaching messages to discourage intentional use of the helmet and encourage protection of defenseless opponents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Sports Medicine Assessment, Research & Testing (SMART) Laboratory, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA.Sports Medicine Assessment, Research & Testing (SMART) Laboratory, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA.MedStar Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C., USA.MedStar Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.MedStar Sports Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Sports Medicine Assessment, Research & Testing (SMART) Laboratory, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31058198

Citation

Caswell, Shane V., et al. "Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse." Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, 2019, p. 2325967119835587.
Caswell SV, Kelshaw P, Lincoln AE, et al. Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7(4):2325967119835587.
Caswell, S. V., Kelshaw, P., Lincoln, A. E., Hepburn, L., Dunn, R., & Cortes, N. (2019). Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(4), 2325967119835587. https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967119835587
Caswell SV, et al. Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7(4):2325967119835587. PubMed PMID: 31058198.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Game-Related Impacts in High School Boys' Lacrosse. AU - Caswell,Shane V, AU - Kelshaw,Patricia, AU - Lincoln,Andrew E, AU - Hepburn,Lisa, AU - Dunn,Reginald, AU - Cortes,Nelson, Y1 - 2019/04/04/ PY - 2019/5/7/entrez PY - 2019/5/7/pubmed PY - 2019/5/7/medline KW - collisions KW - defenseless player KW - helmet contact KW - video analysis KW - wearable sensors SP - 2325967119835587 EP - 2325967119835587 JF - Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine JO - Orthop J Sports Med VL - 7 IS - 4 N2 - Background: The rate of concussions in boys' lacrosse is reported to be the third highest among high school sports in the United States, but no studies have described game-related impacts among boys' lacrosse players. Purpose: To characterize verified game-related impacts, both overall and those directly to the head, in boys' varsity high school lacrosse. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 77 male participants (mean age, 16.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.77 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 73.4 ± 12.2 kg) were instrumented with sensors and were videotaped during 39 games. All verified game-related impacts ≥20g were summarized in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational velocity (PRV). Descriptive statistics and impact rates per player-game (PG) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. Results: Overall, 1100 verified game-related impacts were recorded (PLA: median, 33.5g [interquartile range (IQR), 25.7-51.2]; PRV: median, 1135.5 deg/s [IQR, 790.0-1613.8]) during 795 PGs. The rate for all verified game-related impacts was 1.38 impacts per PG (95% CI, 1.30-1.47). Of these, 680 (61.8%) impacts (PLA: median, 35.9g [IQR, 26.7-55.5]; PRV: 1170.5 deg/s [IQR, 803.2-1672.8]) were directly to the head (impact rate, 0.86 impacts/PG [95% CI, 0.79-0.92]). Overall, midfielders (n = 514; 46.7%) sustained the most impacts, followed by attackers (n = 332; 30.2%), defenders (n = 233; 21.2%), and goalies (n = 21; 1.9%). The most common mechanisms for overall impacts and direct head impacts were contact with player (overall: n = 706 [64.2%]; head: n = 397 [58.4%]) and stick (overall: n = 303 [27.5%]; head: n = 239 [35.1%]), followed by ground (overall: n = 73 [6.6%]; head: n = 26 [3.8%]) and ball (overall: n = 15 [1.4%]; head: n = 15 [2.2%]). Direct head impacts were associated with a helmet-to-helmet collision 31.2% of the time, and they were frequently (53.7%) sustained by the players delivering the impact. Nearly half (48.8%) of players delivering contact used their helmets to initiate contact that resulted in a helmet-to-helmet impact. Players receiving a head impact from player contact were most often unprepared (75.9%) for the collision. Conclusion: The helmet is commonly used to initiate contact in boys' high school lacrosse, often targeting defenseless opponents. Interventions to reduce head impacts should address rules and coaching messages to discourage intentional use of the helmet and encourage protection of defenseless opponents. SN - 2325-9671 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31058198/Game_Related_Impacts_in_High_School_Boys'_Lacrosse_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2325967119835587?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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